There are numerous theories that explain the causes of challenging behaviours among children. The first theory that helps in understanding challenging behaviour among children is the behavioural theory that asserts that behaviour is a result of the learning environment (Prizant, Audet and Burke, 1990, p 184). According o this theory, reinforcements such as rewards and sanctions will either make the behaviour gain strength or disappear. Behavioural perspective assumes that negative reinforcements will reduce the intensity and frequency of the challenging behaviour. According to the theory, children visualize, imagine, and respond to the external stimuli (Papatheodorou, 2005). Psychodynamic perspective assumes that challenging behaviour results from unconscious conflicts that the children are unaware of their existence (Porter, 2003). The attachment patterns will continue to have an impact on the future development of the child while in school. Stories and play can enable the child to process the unconscious conflicts thus reducing the frequency of the challenging behaviour (Prizant, Audet and Burke, 1990, p 187). The theory suggests that children will be able to alter challenging behaviour soon they become aware of their consciousness (Porter, 2003).The third theory that explains the cause of challenging behaviour is the biopsychosocial theory that asserts that behaviour results from brain growth and genetic factors. The biopsychosocial perspective also entails social, family and health factors. that contribute to the occurrence of challenging behaviours among the children. The model assumes that children are born with certain temperamental constitution that is biological and provides the genetic basis of the child’s personality (Walker-Hall and Sylva, 2001). Although the unique temperament of the child remains stable through out the life span, the exhibited behaviours change with time due to the influence of the social environment thus leading to suppression of some challenging behaviours. Some of the temperamental factors include the child’s activity level, stubbornness, sensory threshold, and adaptability to new activities (Ayers, Clarke and Murry, 2000).
According to the humanistic theory, self-concept attainment is responsible for children behaviours. The theory asserts that the immediate environment should nurture the emotional