Namely, it assumes that crime is the sole responsibility of police and unless actions or preventative measure are a direct response to crime, then all other police actions are secondary and perhaps even unimportant. Cutting crime is undoubtedly a critically important responsibility of police. However, to say in the latter part of her statement, that no more or no less is required, is negligent and irresponsible at best. To separate criminal responsibilities, we must first define crime. According to the Oxford Dictionary, crime is “an action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law.” (Oxford, 2013) When Theresa May outlined that the primary responsibility of the police was to cut crime, she suggested that they react to the breach of public law. Currently, numerous police responsibilities exist outside the field of law infraction. Take for example a lost child. Would one hesitate to inform the police that your child was lost or missing because it was not categorized as a crime? There are certainly countless examples of non-crime related situations where police action is vital. However, in this paper, I will focus specifically on preventative measures that do not fall under May's “cutting crime” strategy.
Meaning that the nature in which the individual is surrounded by and exposed to, highly determines if they will commit a crime in the future. A neighbourhood that is suffering from high dropouts rates from secondary educational institutions, lacking social structures, poor social programs and infrastructure, is more likely to have high crime rates. Add to the formula, the strain theory – which states that although many people have similar goals and objectives, not all have the same opportunities or abilities. (www.socialscience.stow.ac.uk , 2013). In other words, crime might be a quick means to an end, as the opportunities and abilities are not within the individual’s grasp. Both of these theories explain as to why preventative measures should hold importance in policing. A study in The United States, conducted in 2008, showed that 68 percent of prison inmates did not have a high school diploma and a further study showed that students who attended a pre-kindergarten program increased their high school graduation rate by as much as 44 percent. (School Library Journal.com, 2008). It is most definitely not police responsibility to monitor and encourage students to complete their education. Rather, this study points out the pre-conditions, many times, years prior, that leads up to offenders committing crime. The argument could be said that the police's responsibility is to focus and deal specifically in fighting and responding to crime. Yet, closely analysing the strain and the social disorganization theory, we can see that the source of crime develops much earlier than can be anticipated. More preventative and sociological positions are needed by the police. Attention needs to be