This course of action has been with the belief that international peace and security in the long run would be promoted in the absence of nuclear weapons (Geller, 1990). However, there has been a view that nuclear weapons are useful and indispensable in promoting international peace and security; those who feel protected by the said weapons or possess them argue that they are not meant to be used but rather employed solely as a military deterrent to adversaries thereby preventing war (Berry et al, 2010). The advocates of creation and stockpiling of nuclear weapons as a military deterrent argue that it helped to end the World War II in 1945, maintained peace during the Cold War, and extended deterrence to military allies of those who possess nuclear weapons. It is on the basis of these two arguments on whether nuclear weapons should be created and stockpiled as military deterrent or should be eliminated that it is critical to examine the ethical issue and problems that the issue presents. Berry et al (2010) observed that there has been a great deal of claims for nuclear deterrence. Most International Relations experts, as well as most leaders of nuclear powers claim that the nuclear deterrence include: stabilizing crises, protect friends of states that possess nuclear weapons, acts as the ultimate national survival insurance, allows states to affect political events from afar, offsets imbalances caused by conventional force, deters attacks, and keeps the world safe. The proponents of nuclear weapons assert that their claims for nuclear deterrence are informed by two different levels of legitimization of the same. The first level is the maximalists’ level of legitimization where nuclear weapons are seen as an infallible shield which is firmly defensive. The second level is that which nuclear weapons are viewed as helpful in anticipation of surprises and is claimed to act as an “insurance” against the unforeseeable (Paul et al, 2009). These proponents also recognize and understand that nuclear deterrence has some limits of validity. They recognize that to a greater extent nuclear weapons deter aggression at lower levels and that at a decidedly higher level of aggression, nuclear may be used. Besides, they recognize that the success of nuclear deterrence requires a care probabilistic analysis because certainty of such success is not tenable (Berry et al, 2010). The nuclear weapons proponents support their assertion of nuclear deterrence by citing the “sixty-five years of safety”. They argue that nuclear weapons have helped to maintain peace in the world since 1945 (Geller, 1990). The efficacy of deterrence is particularly evident in the events of the Cold War where despite numerous confrontations no nuclear war was fought. However, the opponents of nuclear weapons argue that there is no clear evidence that nuclear weapons helped to keep the peace during the Cold War. Actually, there are many cases where nuclear conflicts were avoided by mere luck. It has been argued that no nuclear weapon state has faced a war in which its critical interests are at stake (Paul et al, 2009). So, what ethical issue and ethical problems does this issue present? The ethical issue presented in this
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The Creation and Stockpiling of Nuclear Weapons as a Military Deterrence Strategy Michael Gibeaut SOC120 Professor Rokesha (Kay) Green May 28, 2012 The Creation and Stockpiling of Nuclear Weapons as a Military Deterrent The issue of the development and stockpiling of nuclear weapons has occupied the central position in the debate on international peace and security…
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Geller (1990) argues that there has been extensive belief that nuclear weapons have been the main factor in determining the dynamics of conflict international and the distribution of power in the international system in the period after 1945. He further argues that there has been an assumption that nuclear weapons provide psychological and military advantage for nations that possess them especially in situations of conflict.
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Today, five nations – the U.S., United Kingdom, Russia, China and France – are officially recognised as possessing nuclear weapons. Pakistan and India have tested nuclear weapons and it is not known if Israel possesses nuclear weapon capability. Recently,
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Jha is alleged to have fraudulently obtained $200,000 and attempted to obtain further $500,000 in grant funds from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The prosecutors claim
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