Compared to United States, per capita expenses of Israel are half but its results in many areas of healthcare are superior (Rosen). Israeli Medical Condition: Israeli medical condition is approaching North America and Western Europe In Israel, the healthcare services have been developed by nonprofit health plans, other nonprofit institutions, the Israeli government and the British Mandatory regime that existed before 1948. The health plans are called kupot holim alike contemporary US HMOs. The National Health Insurance Law ensures that all the citizens are covered by health insurance and seeks its benefits. By the end of 1980s, about 95% of the people were insured in one of the four health policies. The health system was founded on strong collectivist values which believed in strong egalitarian-socialist ethics and the fact that only joint activity could create, defend and develop a new state. About 50% of Israel's acute care beds are operated by the Ministry of Health. Another one third is operated by “Clalit”, the major health arrangement and the residual is operated by both profit and nonprofit organizations. The government has a good control over entire health care system right from third party players to health professionals. The MoH gives licenses and monitors the quality of total health care system including Israel's hospitals, outpatient surgery centers, dialysis centers, clinical labs and other key healthcare facilities. The licenses given to hospitals are for 1–3 years, and then depending on the results of the latest Inspection these are being extended. The licenses refer to a definite number of beds, by department, as well as these also specify the types of outpatient clinics the hospital is permitted to operate. In 2000s, the Ministry of Health's Quality Assurance Unit started a system of examinations of quality for hospitals and other healthcare facilities (whether or not the facility is run by the Ministry or another provider). The inspections are done annually. For hospitals, these engage a big multidisciplinary group of up to 25 inspectors. The inspections include detailed reviews of a sample of records. Hospitals are informed in advance so that they can prepare for the inspections. The inspections are done quite seriously and those facilities which are not found to be up to the required standards are either closed down or asked to improve maintaining proper guidelines. The Ministry carries out assessment of the health plans' function district wise. Major detailed studies have been carried out on such topics like hospital-acquired infections, coronary bypass operations, ICU care and transplants etc. Another project on Ministry of Health centers on antibiotic-resistant contagion. For several years, though Clalit had a quality-monitoring system in its hospitals, it did not show significant improvements. The organization is now restructuring itself under the orders of the Ministry of Health. Similar efforts are also being taken by the Ministry of Health to develop the required quality measures for the government hospitals. Israel's National Blood Bank is functioned by the national ambulance service (MDA) and maintains the uppermost global safety principles. However, Israel does not have a national procedure for dealing with medical errors, except from those that result in deaths in hospitals or for other very severe outcomes. However, as patients publicize many
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