Procedures are provided for authorities responding to reports of child abuse and abandonment and efforts must be made to preserve the child’s family ties. These provisions seek to create and maintain a fully coordinated framework which secures local communities and organizations to collaborate and implement efficient and evidence-based child abuse prevention policies. Part 2 - Identify the physical, behavioral and emotional signs and indicators of sexual abuse. Distinguish between sexual abuse and types of conditions which may look like sexual abuse. Identify family situations which increase the potential for this type of abuse. There are various physical signs of sexual abuse. Meyer and Weaver (2006) describe that physical pain, rashes, itching or sores in the genital and anal areas, enuresis, encopresis, frequent urinary tract infections, and frequent vomiting are some of the physical signs of abuse. In instances of incest, the following physical signs of sexual abuse are often seen: social or geographic isolation of the family, daughter/mother role reversal, father doting/lavishing gifts on the select child, and children forced into parental roles (Survivors and Friends, 2003). In general, other physical signs of sexual abuse may include the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, unexplained pregnancies, bruising or bleeding in the vaginal or rectal areas, complaints of abdominal pain, drastic weight loss or gain, displaying sexualized interests, vaginal or penile discharges, changes in appearance, and signs of exhaustion or lack of sleep, (Afruca, 2007). Behavioral signs may also include extreme secrecy, excessive bathing, provocative or promiscuous behavior, behavior more worldly than other friends of the same age, low self-esteem (Meyer and Weaver, 2006). Other behavioral signs may include changes in sleeping pattern, bedwetting, having nightmares or bad dreams, depression irritability, anger, guilt, shame, avoidance of people and places, inappropriate sexual advances, sexual drawings, and social withdrawal (Flanagan, ed., 2002). Among children 18 months and under, they also usually manifest with fretful behavior and flat affect. They also usually have an unreasonable fear of adults and have a fear of being abandoned. They usually show either excessive clinging or the opposite (Kinnear, 2007). They often fail to thrive and sometimes manifest excessive crying and extreme behavior changes. Among toddlers and preschoolers, they are likely to show excessive fear of particular adults or particular places; moreover, playing with their toys sometimes manifest sexual tones. They do not associate with their peers well and often manifest much anxiety (Kinnear, 2007). They also show an excessive fear of refusal and have advanced knowledge of sexual activities. Among school-age children, they are likely to show school phobias, fears, and self-blame. They are often anorexic and sometimes express a strong wish for a normal family (Kinnear, 2007).