According to him in the process of socialisation, we go through four phases. These are the psychological, personality, social and cultural. These four phases condition our 1) body 2) individual psychology, 3) roles and positions in society 4) knowledge, art, literature and other human products respectively. So functionalism believes that in the first phase we get accustomed to the primary environment and in the next three stages we get accustomed to the secondary environment that begins at our adolescent years and continues to the whole of our adult life.
Marxists believe in a more scientific way when it comes to identifying the process of socialisation. According to them "we experience the world as radiating outward from our personal here and now. There is no other way in which we could live and experience our lives" (Sharrock, Hughes and Martin, 2003, p. 143) If we explore this viewpoint, we get to the conclusion that the people and situations that we come across during our primary socialisation days; gets fitted in our mindset forever. Therefore later, during the time of secondary socialisation, we interpret all the situations or interpersonal communications according to our preconceived mindset. We perceive the world according to the way we are. Here the process of primary socialisation refers to an individuals contact with his primary relations. The secondary process of socialisation can be more complex according to Marxists who believe that all our interactions and the way we perceive people can be an extension of our values, education and attitudes towards culture, society etc, that we have gained in our primary socialisation days.
The feminists believe that the process of both primary and secondary socialisation is different for people of different genders. Since one's primary socialisation days, women experience patriarchy and a sense of discrimination. Feminism states that biological division plays an integral part in the process of socialisation. When females reach the secondary socialisation phase the male-oriented society discriminates both at ideas and institutional level. Therefore learning how to behave like a human and act according to what is expected from the society is different for both men and women. Rules are more stringent for women.
All the three i.e. the functionalists, the Marxists and the feminists believe that the function of socialisation is to overcome the constraints that are embedded in society, during the process of socialisation. Hence according to the fundamentalists, the function of socialisation is to emphasize on external observation rather than introspection to judge the society. The Marxists feel that there are class relationships in society. So the function of socialisation according to them is to overthrow the constraint of class relationship to make the society better. The function of socialisation according to the feminists is to remove the patriarchal feeling and the inborn nature of men to control women's behaviour completely from the mindset of people.
Agents of socialisation
All the agents of socialisation play a crucial role in the development of an individual and the society at large. The family is a backbone to us and is widely known as a group of people who share blood relationship amongst them and take care of each other.
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(Process and Functions of Primary and Secondary Socialisation Essay)
“Process and Functions of Primary and Secondary Socialisation Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/sociology/274220-socialisation.
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