The modern factories, the collection of people under one roof, required the power of a large number of disciplined work-force to carry out the functions and the process of manufacture.
This also paved the way for the increased need of inspection or surveillance. One reason for the decline of the firms was that labor to be paid a piece wage, and working at home made the monitoring of time impossible. The more modern factory, factory towns, and an industrial wage labor force or proletariat were all created in the closing decades of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth.
The term "technology" was born in 1828, and spread with the railroads. The very first of such technologies is the the telegraph system, which aided the stock market bloom. The railroad system allowed very fast travel. The importance of the railways was not only its speed and automation, but that it gave its riders freedom. The history of technological revolutions in the past two centuries may be said to have started with the Industrial Revolution of 1760-1830, which witnessed the "rise of the factory" (Mokyr, 2001).
Invention of the steam engine was critical to the invention of the modern railroad and train. The first railroads were organized with a central control similar to the army, and were the precursors to later corporations. Wage cuts, loss of control and intermittent accidents united workers in their protests and resulted in conflicts and strikes. it highlighted the differences of the industry based economy and agriculture based economy.
The most amazing invention that further shrunk the world at the start of the twentieth century was by the Wright brothers, the aeroplane, a flying...
Much of the pre-Industrial Revolution population, in any case, were independent farmers or craftsmen making it quite unnecessary to distinguish between "firm", "plant", or "household".
The advent of factories led to a fundamental shift in society. The introduction of efficient mechanized production techniques resulted in cheaper products produced much faster. There was no competition; individuals were forced to work-at the factories. The factories divided the day into shifts. Individuals no longer had control over their schedules, but were expected to conform to rigorous routine.
Workers began to lose their sense of individuality. The proletarian workers dressed in industrial uniforms, walked in unison, in lock-step with their heads tilted downward, grouped in square rows, six persons wide and six persons deep. They were operating under the principles of total efficiency and acceleration, as theorized by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1911) in the first decades of the twentieth century.
This objectification was furthered by the mechanistic work structures and the tendency to reward those who caught on quickest. An individual became a mere cog in the wheel, interchangeable, and dependent on the others to get his job completed. Money became the common denominator of values, of individuality.
Today's culture experiences the industrial sublime: an awe for streamlined functionalism in machines “large enough to be a mesmerizing part of the landscape and powerful enough to kill you” (Fox, 2001).