It is this exclusion along with the perceived improvement of the position of disadvantaged groups that has contributed to the perception that men have been disadvantaged by equality (Burke and Black reading)
However, with the magnitude of such special policies incorporated by organizations for women perhaps they are now putting men at a disadvantage. Besides, the gradual increase of women in workforce could pose the threat of marginalization to men in the organization. This paper discusses if men are turning into victims of equality in contemporary organizations. Given that they have always been the dominant sex and wielded power over women, can they really be victims The paper discusses factors that may or may not contribute to men's disadvantaged position.
Given that men have outnumbered women in organizations it is difficult to conceive how they can be victims. Traditionally women have been perceived to be the victims of male domination in organizations. They are the ones who face the glass ceiling and find it difficult to get entry into senior positions. If they do manage to get there it becomes difficult for them to sustain at the top due to the isolation they feel from male dominated social network at top management levels. Current research builds on the findings that senior executive leadership is dominated by corporate masculinity, which accommodates women as 'token' or 'other' (wallaby.vu.edu.au/adt-VVUT/uploads/approved/adt-VVUT20070911.142850/public/03Chapter2.pdf)-Sinclair 1994; Maier 1999; Halford and Leonard 2001).
According to Kanter's Tokenism Theory (Kanter 1977-find articles) it would be the women who hold a token position in organizations. Since they have been the one to be considered as a minority group special policies were formulated to serve their interest. As men formed the majority group, they have not even viewed themselves in a gendered way and hence privileges and powers given to them have been invisible to them. Carrerism and leadership has traditionally been easier for men than women. So if men outnumber women and are not a minority group it raises the questions as to whether men can actually be the victims in an organization. The answer is that the gender mix is changing which creates new dynamics in organizations. Do they feel victimized or "visible" These new dynamics motivate researchers to evaluate gender dynamics in organization from the second sexism perspective now.
Men as Victims
1. Organization Policies As discussed above the threat of marginalization is real for men in the changing scenario and men can be described victims in this alternate gender mix in organizations.
-Kanter (1977), has argued that when any group represents less than 15% of an organization, its members will be subject to predictable forms of discrimination. That is, they will suffer from their minority status. If evaluators are aware that the majority of job incumbents to be supervised are female, they are likely to select a female manager. Bias against males has been demonstrated when the majority of subordinates to be supervised were female
Rose & Andiappan, 1978).
Organizations today recognize the importance