Characterized by high index of poverty, such measures have always been welcome by the local communities. Poverty has had the impact of causing social exclusion of these regions or communities from the other parts of the country. In most cases, the aforementioned rural development actions have tended to take a top-down approach; an aspect which has often resulted to a great deal of challenges at the implementation stage. Faced with this reality, the main actors such as local authorities, national governments and the non-governmental organizations have had to revert to the principle of participatory approach with the main objective being to provide a platform for the local people to participate in such initiatives.
In all these development actions, the primary focus has always been geared towards the empowerment of these communities economically in order to address the thorny issue of poverty and social exclusion. However, in the recent past these rural places have continued to go through a series of transformations in a number of ways. One such way through which this change has been witnessed is in terms of transformations of agricultural lands. Within the past few years farming in both the North and South parts of England has been obliterated.