For instance, it is argued that transition to free trade, introduction of wage paid labour, globalisation and connection of different regions of the world, denationalisation of production, establishment of world intellectual exchange, urbanisation, political centralization, and the very strive for progress were caused by bourgeoisie.
The main driving forces that lie behind these changes are the technological innovation and the aspiration for ever-increasing economic efficiency. These factors push the society to evolve and to develop new more effective forms.
Interestingly, although The Communist Manifesto was written in 1848, all these principles of social evolution are urgent even now. Authors imply without stating directly that it is the core nature of modernisation to use the fruits of technological progress in order to build new more economically effective form of society.
[The bourgeoisie] compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilization into their midst, i.e., to become bourgeois themselves. In one word, it creates a world after its own image.
Explanation: The worldwide spread of Western culture and Western way of life is caused the political and economic strength of Western countries. Britain while being the post-imperial Western power still has great influence over its former colonies, which makes it easier to continue the expansion of Western culture into them. Meanwhile, the image of strong Western power causes the population of less developed countries to immigrate to Britain. Thus, globalisation is one of the reasons underlying the wide ethnic variety of British population.
Fulcher, J. Scott, J. (2003). Sociology, 2nd edition, Oxford : Oxford University Press. Chapter 14: Globalisation.
The expansion of Western way of life often causes damage to national riches. Fulcher and Scott (2003) describe a case study of trade in illegal mahogany as one of the examples of globalisation. Indeed, expensive furniture created from mahogany is highly valued in USA, UK, and Europe, which causes the Brazilian population to inflict serious damage to Amazonian rainforest exporting mahogany overseas.
Halsey, A.H. (2000). "A Hundred Years of Social Change." In Social Trends 30 2000 edition by Jil Matheson (ed.) and Carol Summerfield (ed.). London, Stationery Office.
While spreading its influence over the world, Britain changes itself. Immigration from former colonies comprises half the century's growth, leading to multi-ethnic population in Britain of the 21 century, as Halsey (2000, p. 18) states. Thus, the Britain transformed from population exporter to importer.
The bourgeoisie has subjected the country to the rule of the towns. It has created enormous cities, has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural, and has thus rescued a considerable part of the population from the idiocy of rural life.
Explanation: More and more people of the world at large and in contemporary Britain in particular live in urban areas. However, overpopulation of metropolises such as London increases the reverse flow of population into rural areas, which are being urbanised.