Dubos (1960) stated that ancient Greeks believed that physician's chief role was to cure the disease and to restore health by correcting any malfunctioning in the body. The Black report presents wider meaning for the word 'health' which holds major implications for the organization of society. The report provides information on death rates in Britain during 1971 wherein the mortality rates of unskilled category are much higher than that of professional class. Gaps in inequalities of health between lower and higher social classes was widening. The report suggests that problems of ill health among the low social class were linked with social and economic factors income, unemployment, poor environment, poor housing, and education.(The Black Report, 1980)2 The Health Divide Report (1987) also called as Whitehead Report concentrated mainly on one aspect of the causes of health inequalities. The findings of the report were further worrying as it mentioned that gap between the health standards and social class has widened since the publication of Black Report.3 The Acheson Report (1998) in its survey found that children from poor families weighed on average 1.30gms less than those from higher class and 2.2 million children lived on income levels less than 50% of national average. According to report, poor men were likely to die 68% in their middle-ages and poor women 55% as compared to richer people. 4
San Francisco Department of Public Health in its annual report submitted that as per the federal estimates of San Francisco (2002) poverty continues to be highest among youth and children, most prominent in the age groups of 18-24 and children under the age of 5. It is also reported that income distribution was not equally measured as 45% of households in the region made less than $50,000 a year. Major source of income was wages other than investments, social security, retirement and some public assistance.5
Theories of Nursing
Nursing is a revered profession which deserves its due respect. Rogers (1990)6 mentions that nursing is a learned profession, a science and an art. Theories are the important as it is foundation of knowledge and delivery specifying the context and situation in which it applies. Jackie et.al (2005) mentions various theories which have immense value in the nursing care. The theories like grand theory, middle range theory, descriptive theory and prescriptive theories surround human activity and guides in decision making process. The goals of theoretical nursing model are to identify domain and goals of nursing, provide knowledge to improve nursing administration, indentify area to be studied, etc.7 The profession requires the nurses to be well qualified in academic as well as clinically. They should possess minimum practical experience given during their training period as nurses. Nurses are the one who comfort the families of the patient in hard times. Therefore nurses should have excellent communication, academic, practical and service oriented mindset to work in the health care industry.
Bio-Medical Model Vs