In any organization, various groups are encountered, and according to their constitution, they can be broadly typed into informal or formal. Depending on the task or type of the project, the leadership in an organization forms certain groups. So these groups are formally formed based on the achievable work goals in mind. Since the type of task or the function is the major driving force in such groups, these are known as project or task groups. Some authorities further sub-classify task groups on the basis of interdependencies of tasks among the members of the group. These are interacting, coaching, and counteracting (Wells, 1995, 49-85). In an interacting group, the output of one worker following completion is the beginning point of task of another worker. In a coaching group, the individual members are relatively independent of each other in terms of task. The members of counteracting group work together in order to reconcile and negotiate between purposes and opinions, which are counteractive and conflicting. In the project groups, all members of the group work together for the purpose of completing a project within a stipulated period of time. Within an organization, some groups are formed without any guidance from the leadership group or management. The main driving force in such groups is satisfaction of common interest of the employees. For example, employees may form groups to satisfy their social and human needs. Although informal, these groups may exert beneficial effects in the functioning of an organization (Bacal, 1998, 175-180).
Characteristics of a Group Leadership
The group leadership while attempting to influence the group dynamics would try to develop an awareness of the working models of each participant in the group. The group leadership must have the power to constantly imagine the meaning of each event and the ability to assess the interpretation of the events by the group and in this way, the leader must be able to determine the patterns of events in the group (O'Connor and Yballe, 2007, 292-312). If the basic activity of the leadership is to mobilize interest, energy, and commitment of all the people in any organization through creation of human vision and human energies, then leadership must play at the emotional level of the group and in this way must influence the dynamics within the group. Within a group, this can be accomplished only through paying close attention to the group's reaction and perception in order to find out the working model that can evoke a meaning within the group (Ringer, 2000, 1-19).
From these perspectives, the leader must symbolize himself as the moral unity of the group, since he takes the responsibility to advance the group's common good. In the complexity of the organizational structures, there would definitely be forces that tend to threaten the group effort, and the leader would prevent them. Creative and collective thinking is the most important characteristic of a group, and the leader should promote and facilitate that, and if that does not happen, he identifies the problem. In a group, there would be personalities of all, which may have conflicts, but a leader would take steps to motivate the group to focus attention to issues (Pines, 1998, 24-29).
Stages of Group