If modern human resource is more equipped, then the fact that today's employees have not remained like their predecessors in following up the traditional managerial authority can also not ignored. Employees are more educated along with the qualities of more likely to question than to accept managerial authority, more focused on their own career development than on the organisation's interests, more mobile and are less loyal to their workplaces. Many managers see these characteristics in a negative light, and advance them as yet more reasons why performance planning and review won't work.
In fact, these characteristics of employees make today's employees 'knowledge' workers and today's human resource 'knowledge management'. The jobs of these 'new' employees present new challenges for managers but, handled effectively, these challenges are a key to better individual and organisational performance. For example, knowledge based jobs might involve high levels of non-repetitive work, with frequent changes in demand and direction making prediction and planning much more difficult and uncertain. Other features of knowledge work also have an impact on the management of performance. (Rudman, 2003, p. 17)
Among most researchers working in the context of Human Resource paradigm, it is the explanations that matter any link to firm performance is secondary. It is assumed that societies, governments or regions can have HRM practices and policies as well as firms. At the level of the organisation, the organisation's objectives and the strategy adopted are not necessarily assumed to be 'good' either for the organisation or for society. (Millward, 2000, p. 5)
A second potentially important source of change in the UK Human Resource practices the work, which is derived from various developments in managerial thinking about employee relations. Very broadly this is characterised as it is shifted from an 'industrial relations' to a modern 'human resource management' perspective. The traditional model of employment relations in the large firm sector has always been based on collective bargaining and the joint regulation of the conditions of employment. The distinctive feature of the British pattern of industrial relations, at least in the private sector, was the significance of local workplace bargaining. The assumption behind this bargaining used to be the individual's relationship to management, mediated through the representatives of the workforce, in particular through the shop stewards. (Millward, 2000, p. 6)
Knowledge management has changed this scenario of collective bargaining into a considerable discussion of how to manage good employment relationship. Quite apart from the residual power of local trade union organisation, which made any full-scale implementation of such policies difficult to achieve (Stewart and Garrahan, 1995), a number of commentators have emphasised the relatively short-term nature of British managers' perspectives whether with respect to investment, labour relations, or