While this was later thought of as a misconception, it wasn't treated at all drastically because, as they say, bad habits last long. Another misconception is that people, the laborers, can be rewarded with money, so that if you hire the right people in your business, and then feed them with the necessary monetary remunerations, that is, financial rewards, business goes on and successfully.
There are many past misconceptions when it comes to job design or practices in the work place. Over time, these so-called misconceptions changed. Managers, researchers, economists and social scientists have been searching ways to produce a job design that best suit a worker in a factory or an employee in the office so that he can be where he is most effective without the extra cost on the part of the company.
In short, we are talking here of a good working atmosphere for a job in a particular company, so that the worker becomes effective where he is most needed, there are no extra costs or over spending in the company, or that the worker is accurately placed in the job. His performance affects the entire company and, therefore, the whole business. Minimization in jobs and maximum output should be in the mind of the manager. And the manager or owner of business wants to put this in the mind of the employee: let him think like he is the owner of the company; let him look forward for progress of the company, and so on. If the manager and employee agree or there is meeting of the minds, the organization will be benefited.
Let's take a look at some of past practices.
In the 1950's, Louis Davis reported a survey in job designs which stated that there were variations and that there was no systematic approach to the different levels in the job. The purpose of the survey was how to get minimal costs in performing a task. Davis used these criteria in job design: economic considerations, technical considerations, time and space, skill requirements, machinery or equipment needed, and industrial relations, that is, regarding to management or union agreements relating to staffing levels and wages. He also took note of the traditions, customs and norms of the plants. Davis discovered a considerable variance in policies towards job design and that there was no systematic approach to it.
In a period in business and commerce, known as post-industrial societies, some practices known as counter productive organizational environments could be found. Managers and job designers ignored the psychological and social aspects of work. In the past, these aspects were totally ignored and greatly affected the working force. Responsibility was in the hands of the manager. Accountability follows. While in the present set up, the success of the company is placed in a broader perspective. The employee is made accountable and added more responsibilities.
In the 1980's, major changes took place in the workplace:
Recession, with attendant retrenchments
Recognition of the need to introduce new technology
Shift in relative costs away from the worker to the machine and or process2
Organizations had to work