As the report stresses the historiography of the UK welfare system can be rewritten by varying but subsequent phases of social control dependent upon the different magnitude of political and economic power of the state and voluntary sector: legitimisation – mobilisation – cooptation – Integration.
This paper declares that social housing is a very significant part of the housing stock in the UK, accounting for about 25 percent of all housing. Social housing – consisting of local authority public housing and non-profit housing association dwellings – continues to provide accommodation to more than 5 million households, by no means all of them low income. Social housing remains important, and continues to have a substantial constituency – despite the loss of about four out of every ten local authority dwellings to sales, transfers and demolitions over the past two decades, and despite the ostensible “residualisation” of social housing as the UK has been swept by the US-style idealisation and ideology of private speculative homeownership. It is now commonplace to note that organizations operating between the state and the market – variously labelled ‘voluntary,’ ‘non-profit,’ ‘nongovernmental,’ ‘civil society’ or ‘third sector organizations’ – have been rediscovered by politicians, academics and the public as a possible third way of a substitute for the statutory welfare service. One reason for this rediscovery is the growing scepticism about the capacity of the state to deliver public services that satisfy user expectations and diverse citizen aspiration.1 Another reason is disillusionment with market solutions, whose difficulties and failings include the lack of attention they pay to socially excluded individuals and communities, and market's vulnerability to the changing economic environment in global economy.
Overall, it can be argued that the rapid expansion of voluntary organizations in the Western welfare states took place in line with the dismantling of the universal idea of social welfare from the mid-1970s.
Change in economy
In 1900 the population Of united kingdom was around 38 million1 and gross domestic product (GDP) stood at just under 125 billion2 at constant 1995 market prices. The economy was more notably based upon trade and manufacturing: manufacturing represented 28 per cent of output; agriculture, forestry and fishing 11 per cent; and services 50 per cent. Looking at the labour market, the employment rate was 69 per cent, with 24 per cent in manufacturing and textiles, and 12 per cent in agriculture. Unemployment stood at around 3 per cent. Within this, the workforce was very much male dominated, with men representing 70 per cent of the active population. Britain in 2000 was a very different place. The days of Empire were gone. The population had increased by 50 per cent to 59 million;4 by comparison, GDP had risen fivefold to 800 billion, at constant 1995 market prices This increase in living standards was also visible in average weekly wages, which had risen to over
250 times their 1902 level while prices had risen 67 times.5 Manufacturing's importance