They therefore had to be prepared to pay the price for the fight for their liberation and a refined leadership had to arise (Thompson, 2000). Fredrick Douglas, a firm believer in the equality of all people whether black, white, female, native American or recent immigrant, the colour of the skin of an individual has no role in the determination of the intellectual genius. He understood that a key way African- Americans could improve their socio-economic status was through education and for this reason he advocated for the segregation of school for both whites and blacks. Inequality, being a major aspect in the interest of Black Americans, Douglas lends support to the sense that all things are equal and to need to improve the next generation. This vice should therefore be eradicated through the adaptation of conscious and deliberate efforts of individuals. Whites should not consider themselves as superior and treat blacks differently as slaves or outcasts. There are several personal and political consequences of contemporary representation of race and ethnicity. White supremacist culture for example may lead to discrimination and psychological trauma.
According to Hooks (1992), the turn around the practice of racism confuses all principles of morality and renders the practice of them impossible. Therefore, equality should be encouraged. She mentions her personal experience revealing the torture the black Americans endure in the hands of whites. She observes torture as a veteran tool of American power in the examination of the racial gender and sexuality. Hooks talks of personal and political consequences of contemporary representation of race and ethnicity within a culture that exhibited white supremacy. The experience of blackness in the different parts of the Diaspora has not been very pleasing considering the social and psychological degradation, discrimination and hatred Blacks go through under the rule of whites. Researches have ultimately shown that racism will lead to lack of self esteem and confidence. This means that a stand must be taken to deal with this social vice.
Rogers (1993), says that western cultures and civilizations have been moulded in one way or the other by ancient African civilizations. In all his works, one thing come out clearly; his strong opposition to racism and formation of various classes and social groupings of people along certain preconceived lines. He reveals that man is not merely a possibility of recapture or negation. He continues to say that consciousness is a process of transcendence and therefore this transcendence should not be haunted by problems of love and understanding. "Black skin, white mask" by Frantz Fanon (1994), is an in depth analysis of the effects of colonization subjugation on the human psyche. It is a personal account of Fanon's experience of being a man, an intellectual at that, with a French education rejected in France by the white French people because skin color. Fanon's psychology is the product of the domination which arises in oppressive colonial situations. That is consciousness was not of essence but a factor arising from political and social situations. His consciousness was not purely black but extended to colonized people of any racial category. He is an advocate of resistance and revolution especially with relation to violence and racism. Fanon's mission was shattered by the gaze of racism which was mostly concerned with the issue of decolonization and psychopathology of