In order to analyze the effects that journalism has had on the society, it is imperative that it be studied in all of its dimensions-including the journalistic practices, norms, routines, and values which apply to different social situations. Firstly, one thing that can be understood is that journalism can never be totally objective since journalists are incapable of totally isolating and alienating their personal beliefs and opinions regarding an issue from the stories that they ultimately do produce.( Soloski 1989)
Journalists too are a part of the social network and values on which they report and hence, the element of bias does affect them all. As Berkowitz stated in his research findings, that journalists will inevitable view events against the background of these values.
In fact, journalists themselves oppose many of the ideas which have been brought forward by the academicians' due to the difference in thought and schools of thought. This can be depicted by the varying values to which both adhere to and even in the social role that we see the journalists portraying in the society today.
In the 8th and 19th century, the perception of Journalists was redefined and it is this definition which most people still belong to. If one was to see to analyze the objective journalist, one can trace it back to the Penny Press, which cultivated this image and role of the journalist. The twentieth century saw the rise of the more neutral and objective journalist image, one who does not let personal biases get in the way of his portrayal of the stories and news.
A person who is guided by matters of fact alone and personal opinion does not play a role in the depiction of the news items. After all the news and stories have been gathered, they are in fact evaluated in order to remove and personal biases and opinions effect on the news item.
However, this so called neutrality mode of the journalist has been challenged by many academicians over time. Different models and approaches have been presented to negate such an image and idea. One such model was presented during the 19th century period, and it was defined as the advocacy model. This model argued the fact that the journalist was used as a neutral person to present events and stories. It stated that the journalist should rather be a mere observer rather than providing his own opinion and voice to the story.
Another model which criticized the role of the journalist was the defined as the New Journalism mode, which not only questioned the matter but the style of presentation as well. According to this model reality can be presented without allowing for any sort of intervention or interpretation to mar it. In this model, reality is framed by literary texts and hence, impersonal viewpoint is the main focus area.
Another model which has challenged the notion of public journalism model-which portrays the journalistic presentation of the news items free from any biases of any sort. Due to these variations of perception of the journalist and his presentation of the story items, there has always been a clash of opinion between the journalist and the journalist researcher.
Several studies have pointed it out that of the major reasons for the journalists letting personal