The measurement tools in the survey that refer to quality are those suggesting that halal meat is tastier, healthier and safer. As may be expected, the Muslim and non-Muslim participants responded in a contrasting manner regarding the gustatory and nutritional quality of halal, with only slight variations. On the supposition that halal meat is tastier, for example, the non-Muslims respondents strongly disagree at 42.9 percent, 36.3 percent disagree somewhat, 19.8 percent are neutral, and none agree somewhat let alone strongly agree. As expected, none of the Muslim customers totally disagrees or takes a neutral position but 3.3 percent disagrees somewhat. Those who answered agree somewhat and strongly agree are 69.3 percent and 26.4 percent, respectively, which indicates that not all Muslims are convinced that halal meat is tastier. On the proposition that halal meat is healthier, 23.1 percent of the non-Muslim respondents strongly disagree, 56.1 percent disagree somewhat, 66 percent neutral, 19.8 percent agree somewhat, and none strongly agree. ...
As for the Muslims, none responded as strongly disagree and expressed neutrality but 3.3 percent disagreed somewhat whilst 46.2 percent agreed somewhat and 49.5 percent strongly agreed that halal meat is healthier. The same attitudes are more or less evident on whether halal meat is safer, with 26.4 percent of the Muslims agreeing strongly and 0 percent disagreeing strongly even as 13.3 percent were listed as neutral. Again, all the non-Muslims strongly disagreed, with 9.9 percent staying neutral.
The finding that halal meat does not appeal to some Muslims as tastier, healthier and safer confirms previous studies that more than religion, Muslim consumption of halal is also dictated by personal attitude, moral norm and perceived behavioural control. For immigrant Muslims, this happens when they have stayed long enough in one country to adopt the lifestyles of the host culture and go through the process of dietary acculturation. In the US, for example, 75 percent of the migrant Muslim population takes to halal (Bonne & Veirmeir, 2007), which means that 25 percent consumes non-halal foods. Gabaccia (1998) noted the same phenomenon in a multi-country study, which found that only 70 percent of all Muslims worldwide follow the halal food standards. According to the theory of planned behaviour, which French authorities use to accommodate halal in the mainstream food market for the benefit of the large Muslim population in that country, consumer food choices are determined by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Attitude refers to the psychological tendency of people to evaluate something with