In a 2002 study, The Annenberg Public Policy Center examined 57 of the largest companies and conglomerates in the entertainment, telecommunications and cable, publishing, and e-companies, as well as individual operating units within those companies. Among 10 entertainment conglomerates, women were found to comprise 13 percent of directors and 14 percent of executives. Fox Entertainment Group, Inc., and USA Networks, Inc., for example, listed no women among their top executives in their 2001 annual reports. The study found that among the 23 largest telecommunications and cable providers, women account for 12 percent of directors and 16 percent of executives. And among the 13 most successful e-companies, women make up only eight percent of directors and 18 percent of executives. Women seem to fare better in the area of publishing, where they make up 17 percent of directors and 22 percent of executives in the 11 largest companies. It has been recommended that corporations provide more training and mentoring to women to help guide their careers, do internal reviews for the hiring and retention of women at all levels, and put succession planning into place for top positions to include outreach to women (Koss-Feder, 2002). All around the globe, these numbers are typical and consistent.
Those women who have achieved top status in the comm...
"This is a great way help women gain access to top positions, where they will have some real decision-making authority." He also notes that the lack of women at the top is a major inequity for an industry that markets half of its products and services to women. "It seems unseemly to me that a business that delivers its products to an equal number of women and men does not have more women in their leadership," Challenger says. "That will need to change" (Koss-Feder, 2002).
It is indeed ironic that media companies are often trying to figure out how to market more effectively and aggressively to female consumers while staffing at the highest creative levels remains disproportionately male (Girls, Women + Media, 2002). This is paralleled by the way that women are typically represented as dependent and emotional in television while also being underrepresented, according to Media and Communications Studies. The study further demonstrated showed that there are three times as many men on television as women. In a voiceover study, men's voices were used 80 percent of the time compared to women at 20 percent during one hour of television in the show "E.R." "Women [actresses] often complain that there are no good roles for women," says Ph.D. in Communications at Wayne State Hayg Oshagan. Actresses also say that "there is age discrimination. Every [female] scientist is like a runway model" (Wood, 2004).
When it comes to movies, studios use economic arguments to explain the abundance of female stereotypes that are found on the big screen. Movies featuring sex and violence are big international sellers. Why would this be Sex and action films do not rely on intellectually