The presence of women in management positions, or positions traditionally occupied by men, became more prevalent after the passage of title VII and Title IX.However, the enactment of these laws have not proven to be the panaceas which was envisaged. Companies have skirted with the laws and showcased a few isolated incidents which gave the perception that they were moving full speed ahead with equality, when in actuality they were pacifying the authorities and the public. As David Leonhardt points out in a recent New York Times article; “all the recent high-profile achievements - the first female secretary of state, the first female lead anchor of a nightly news-cast, the first female president of Princeton, and the first female speaker of the house – do not reflect what is happening to most women”(Leonhardt) As a matter of course, the higher the hierarchal order the more prevalent the proverbial glass ceiling persists. As a general rule, companies for the most part do not exhibit a problem with employing women. However, most companies have exhibited a long standing history of gender stratification, income discrimination according to gender, and discrimination in upper anagement positions.One of the most telling issues in today’s workplace is the difference in pay received by women who occupy the same work as their male counterparts, yet the women do not receive the same pay as men.
women do not receive the same pay as men. This phenomena has been simply termed
either wage discrimination, or for those who prefer to soften the sound effects of the
malady, it is referred to as the wage pay gap.
Moreover, women who are hired on the same day as men, for the same job, are
prone to receive at least $.37 on the dollar less than their male counterparts. Also,
women who have received very positive performance ratings are not promoted at the
same rate as males with similar or even less substantial performance ratings. Still,
those women who are promoted often times receive an assignment which is not on
the upper management tract, and as a consequence these promotions received by
women, even if they are upper management tracts, women do not receive the same
rate of pay as their male counterparts. Consequently, female employees are more
prone to reach the glass bubble, by being retained in hourly wage or lower level
management positions, in disproportionate numbers, and are less likely to receive
company sponsored training for advancement.
Statement of problem
According to Heidi Hartmann, an economist and CEO of the Institute for
Women's Policy Research in Washington, D. C. ; "There's been a period of several
years in a row with little or no real earnings growth for women. This is a real danger
sign. If we want to see women closing the wage gap with men, we have to put a little
more effort into this. We need a turnaround".(Hartmann)