Lewin's field theory (1951) states that, behavior may be derived from overall coexisting factors. The so called "coexisting facts" create a dynamic field which can be referred to as any component of the field that depends on each other's part. It further indicates that the behavior of an individual relies on the present field and not on the past or its future. Note that this theory seemed contrasting to the theory of associationism as well as belief of theology. Theory of associationism stipulates that, the past is basically the cause of behavior, while belief of theology states that, the cause of behavior is the future. The field referred to in Lewin's theory is the life space that consists of the person with his or her psychological environment. Life space can also be the places where the person have been to or will still be going, his or her feelings to the said place, the events and people exiting in the said place/s. On the other hand, Lewin's theory
of change explains that, the entire process in terms of facilitating as well as its associated hindering factors that individual or group encounters can consequently bring change. Together with this process the organization will enable to meet human anxieties, create the new equilibrium supporting the change. Like in social works or services, several changes may be carried upon, and there is expected resistance because of certain unknown fears. Fears about coping up of their roles and responsibilities, persons promoting the changes, or perhaps, fear about the technology that the change can bring about.
Another theory from Festinger (1957) is called cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is focused on the relationships among cognitions. Cognition may be considered as a piece of knowledge. In the same way, knowledge may be considered as n emotion, an attitude, a behavior, a value, etc. Festinger theorized that, individuals are motivated by the unpleasant condition of dissonance to get involve in psychological work, so as to decrease the inconsistency; this work will basically support the cognition at most resistant to change. Individuals have multitude of cognitions and these cognitions shape consonant, irrelevant, or dissonant connections with one another. Dissonance can be experienced as something uncomfortable. Individuals are motivated to decrease dissonance that is experienced by changing cognitions, or by adding cognitions or changing the relevance of the cognitions. In most cases, the relationship of attitude and the amount of justification that is provided to get involve with the attitude-discrepant behavior is inversely proportional.
Chapanis and Chapanis (1964) criticized that, experiments along with the theory, presented some methodological ambiguities. The statements of Chapanis and Chapanis as well as Rosenberg resulted to more experiments which were carefully designed, elicited more consistent evidences with dissonance theory (Silverman, 1964; Linder et al., 1967). Cognitive dissonance theory could have facilitated in the generation of program that might have changed attitudes. Induced compliance results to attitude change as an opposite function of justification. It was able to prove that money is not the only reason or justification that