Society also has a range of specific needs. One of them is, for example, a need for collective notion of order, the other is the need for a set of definite regulations that should be understood and recognized by the members of the society. A world that is obeyed to definite ruled is easy to predict, so the core of the society lies in the behaviour of its members. One more essential need is a need for unity among social actors, another is the need for their desire to carry out their social duties and give up something for the benefit of the community. Society also needs that all the members correlate their actions with the activity of the society in general. Thus, human motivation and actions transform into the goals and mechanisms of the society functioning, so observation of the human needs and interests is extremely valuable for the successful functioning of the society in general. (On the Needs of Self and Society)
Before describing various approaches that observe the structure and division of the human needs, it is necessary to give the definition of the term "need". Henry Murray in his book Explorations in Personality (1938) gave a definition that is considered to be one of the most fine and detailed. This definition is as follows:
A need is a construct (a convenient fiction or hypothetical concept...
A need is sometimes invoked by internal processes of a certain kind (viscerogenic, endocrinogenic, halamicogenic) arising in the course of vital sequences, but, more often (when in a state of readiness) by the occurrence of a few commonly effective press (or by anticipatory images of such a press). Thus it manifests itself by leading the organism to search for, or avoid encountering, or, when encountered, to attend to and respond to certain kinds of press...Each need is normally accompanied by a particular feeling or emotion...it may be weak or intense, momentary or enduring. But usually it persists and gives rise to a certain course of overt behaviour (or fantasy) which (if the organism is competent and external opposition not insurmountable) changes the initiating circumstances in such a way as to bring about an end situation which stills (appeases or satisfies) the organism (Murray, pp.123- 4).
There are several major approaches that study human needs, their structure and the motivation. As far as it isn't defined what theory is the most precise, and each of them has its supporters, it is necessary to give a brief description of the most remarkable.
For instance, John Barton in 1979 gave the following list of eight human needs that he considered to be essential:
The need for reaction of the people that surround the personality
The need for inspiration (here he notes that the content of this need changed historically)
The need for protection (for instance, desire to get rid of the fear of death)
The need for social approval (social approval and recognition provide the personality with self-confidence and assures that the behaviour and person's reaction to motivation provided by the society is