Job burnout studies were originally conducted on people working in human services and education (Maslach et al., 2001 ). The topic continues to be of interest in various fields including hospitality academia. Within hospitality and tourism, most existing studies have investigated causes of burnout with a focus on the work environment including role stressors, organizational structures, and job characteristics. Specifically, role ambiguity, role conflict, poor management, poor communication, difficult customers, lack of autonomy, and work overload have been reported as precursors of hospitality job burnout (Allen and Mellor, 2002).
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the role of personality dispositions in understanding hospitality employees' job burnout in the hotel work setting. The Five-Factor Model of personality, which in recent years has received significant support among personality experts, is used. In the literature section, the five personality dimensions and the antecedents of job burnout are described in detail.
A group of psychologists consider job burnout as a type of stress, which is one dimensional (Maslach et al., 2001 ). Others view it as multi-dimensional (Allen and Mellor, 2002 ). ...
Others view it as multi-dimensional (Allen and Mellor, 2002 ). The current consensus is that job burnout is composed of three sub-constructs: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Emotional exhaustion refers to a lack of energy and a feeling that one's emotional resources are used up because of excessive psychological demands. Depersonalization is characterized by treating others as objects rather than people through cynical, callous, and uncaring attitudes and behaviors. Diminished personal accomplishment denotes a tendency to evaluate oneself negatively because of failure to produce results. Each sub-dimension of job burnout captures its unique aspect of job burnout (Somer and Goldberg, 1999). In summary, the principal dimensions of job burnout are the stress component (emotional exhaustion), interpersonal relations (depersonalization), and self-evaluation (personal accomplishment).
Five-Factor Model of personality
The personality taxonomy known as the Big Five or the Five-Factor Model has been particularly influential in industrial and organizational psychology during the last decade (Maslach et al., 2001 ). Most of the studies investigating the Big Five factors utilized the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) as their foundation-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Goldberg, 2001). However, the discovery of the five factors was entirely based upon lexical studies of personality structure (Allen and Mellor, 2002). The lexical hypothesis states that the largest numbers of personality-descriptive adjectives in human languages represent the major dimensions of personality variations (Somer and Goldberg, 1999). Following the discovery of the Big Five