Globalization and agri-food trade in third-world countries is becoming increasingly impacting, as people shift their residences to urban areas, and other infrastructure connected rural areas.In broad terms, globalization refers to the worldwide (global) integration of technological, economic, cultural, political, as well as social aspects amongst countries (Hamilton 2009). Globalization refers to the increasing process of global connectivity, as well as the interdependency of businesses and the world’s markets (Senauer & Venturini 1994). Globalization has accelerated dramatically over the last couple of decades as advances in technology eases travelling, communication and international businesses. The two main driving forces are the emergence of the internet and advances in infrastructure of communications. Globalization has increased competition fro the available products in the market.Whereas food globalization has for long been considered a process ruled by the concept of internationalization of the manufacturing of food, the existence of global retailers has emerged to be a powerful globalization engine which is expected to have a powerful effect with the implications regarding the environment characterized with competition, as well as, the applying rules in food systems. Nations, which have advanced, technologically, including Europe and America enjoy accessibility to any vegetable or fruit throughout the year at even at the local markets; this is enabled through international sourcing. Consequently, producers of agricultural food, manufacturers of related products, and retailers function in a constantly competitive, yet changing environment.
Recently, development in agri-food trade, in developing countries, has indicated a rise, as mutual interaction is enabled through connectivity. Food systems indicate a constant change, causing a greater food diversity and availability, even if access to such food does not imply universality. Many of the changes in the food systems have a close association with increasing incomes, urbanization, foreign direct investment and market liberalization. Competition by businesses to acquire a share in the market concerning food purchases intensifies with joining of the new system integrating new but powerful players like large supermarket chains, as well as, multinational fast food businesses.
Losers in food systems’ businesses include traditional food markets, small local agents, sometimes merchants who sell “street foods” amongst other food items. Supermarkets strive to significantly improve standards of safety and food quality at convenience and competitive prices, thus creating highly attractive factors to increasingly sophisticated consumers. Therefore, food systems’ changes affect accessibility and availability to food via changes to approaches of production, food procurement and systems of food distribution as well as the environment involving food trade. Consequently, these observable changes have caused a constant but gradual shift in the phenomenon of food culture in order to attain a more universal food culture, with resultant changes in nutritional status, patterns of dietary consumption that indicates variations with the stratification of socio-economy.
Ideally speaking, the lower class of the socio-economic population shifts towards energy-dense, poor-quality, although cheap as well as affordable foods. (Lang. 2003)