The dynamics and complexities of the relationships between culture, creative industries and the political and economic development of societies have gained the attention of theorists and researchers from the mid-twentieth century itself. The post World War II world saw the mainstreaming of studies on cultural and creative industries as it was an absolute necessity to explore and grasp the changing nature of politics and economics in both the developed and developing countries.
The end of the cold war marked the beginning of a 'cultural turn' in the globalized world. The worldwide dissemination of the values and attitudes of the West in general and the United States of America in particular has been the focus of attention for not only academicians but also for ordinary people from across the world. There have been intense debates over the impact of globalization and the consequent transformations in the realm of culture from a number of conflicting standpoints. The idea of cultural imperialism has been particularly influential in the understanding of the profound transformations that are taking place in the sphere of culture. Regardless of the difference among these contesting perspectives on the characterization of this cultural turn, there exists a consensus on the incredible role of global music industry as carrier of the unprecedented changes pertinent to culture at both global and local levels. However, culture should no longer be perceived as a locally bounded 'whole way of life' as the components of culture themselves have profoundly changed. It has been suggested that culture should not be viewed as introverted, tied to place and inward looking as it used to be in history. Rather, culture is seen as an outward-looking 'translocal learning process'. The advances in technology and the developments in information technologies, digital media, e-commerce and new communication channels have profoundly changed the character of music industries in twenty first century. Music industries have a major share in the international trade and a deep impact over cultural lives of peoples of different countries. The international flow of music goods and services are higher than ever.
Marcuse (2002) argues that music industry is too a new form of social repression which is a result of the creation of 'advanced industrial society wherein false needs are dominant and incorporates individuals into the status quo through the hegemony of its ideological products. Therefore, consuming music products is nothing but an act of being socially controlled, indoctrinated and manipulated. Marcuse reveals the extent of commercialisation of music by arguing that 'the music of the soul is also the music of salesmanship. Exchange value, not truth value counts' (Marcuse, 2002, p.61). As a commodity, music is not only a product for sale but also a carrier of dominant ideology; its purpose is to legitimise the oppressive rule in the existing order.
The Dynamics of Music Industry and its Ideological Functions
The intangibility is one of the important factor in defining a music product or commodity. Certainly, the content of music commodities is immeasurable and 'cultural' in nature. Here, cultural means that the use value of a music commodity is satisfying some of the mental, psychological needs of a user in one way or