This research will begin with the statement that the use of alcohol is known to be a risk factor for liver cirrhosis, accidental death and certain types of malignancy, as well as being a direct cause of death by poisoning. Alcohol use and misuse among young people are connected with a broad range of high-risk behaviors that can have profound health, economic, and social consequences. These behaviors comprise drinking and driving, contribution in unexpected peer groups, misuse of other drugs, insecure sexual interaction, interpersonal aggression, demolition of private property, and poor school performance. The use of alcoholic drinks is entrenched in the social structure of the people and, for many youths, learning to drink has to turn out to be a service of passage and a sign of developing self-government. For these causes, studying drinking behavior has assisted developmentally paid attention investigators to recognize the fundamental environment of cognitive, emotional, and social growth underlying the change from childhood to adolescence, and after that to adulthood. At the same time, alcohol investigators have paid attention very heavily on this developmental period to recognize the surfacing of drinking-related behaviors, including how patterns of alcohol use are acquired and maintained, how expectations about drug taking are formed, how social weight and individual differences shape the development of different drinking patterns, and how environmental factors influence use....
fested by undue preoccupation with alcohol to the detriment of physical and mental health, by a loss of control when drinking has begun (although it may not be carried to the point of intoxication), and by a self-destructive attitude in dealing with personal relationships and life situations. Alcoholism, we believe, is the result of disturbance and deprivation in early infantile experience and the related alterations in basic physiochemical responsiveness; the identification by the alcoholic with significant figures who deal with life problems through the excessive use of alcohol; and a socio-cultural milieu which causes ambivalence, conflict, and guilt in the use of alcohol.
A question not often addressed directly in studies of the relationship between alcohol use and health is the nature of the probably link, and its implications for measurement. In many societies and cultures, the drinking habits of individuals change over their lifetimes, sometimes in association with changes in their social and family responsibilities, or, for example, experience of health problems which need not be related directly to alcohol use. Hence the current drinking habits of an individual may only be a rough guide to his or her overall lifetime use of alcohol, which is implicitly the relevant aspect of exposure in terms of risk of chronic disease. The problems of measuring contemporary use are difficult enough, and this may be one factor deterring investigators from attempting to elicit lifetime use. (Duffy, 1992)
Alcohol and mortality
The use of alcohol is known to be a risk factor for liver cirrhosis, accidental death and certain types of malignancy, as well as being a direct cause of death by poisoning. However, as will be seen in later chapters, the probably causal