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Modernization and Dependency - Essay Example

(Theories of Development: Modernization VS Dependency)
Addtionally, "Modernization theory became the foundation stone of this evolutionary prescription for development. The theory is not homogeneous-numerous proponents disagreed on several key features. But in broad outline, the theory focused on deficiencies in the poorer countries and speculated about ways to overcome these deficiencies. It viewed traditional society as a series of negatives: stagnant and unchanging, not innovative, not profit-making, not progressing, not growing.
It argued that about 500 years ago, most people in the world were poor or living in traditional (often subsistence) social arrangements. Scientific innovation existed in many parts of the world (China, India, the Middle East) but for a variety of reasons (not least of them the conquest of the New World and slavery, which modernization theory bypasses), science and entrepreneurship grew in Western Europe." (.Theories of Development: Modernization VS Dependency)
Meanwhile, the above theory has emerged in three categories; "The first wave appeared in the 1950s and 1960s. One made the attempt to explain the diffusion of Western styles of living, technological innovations and individualist types of communication (highly selective, addressing only particular persons) as the superiority of secular, materialist, Western, individualist culture and of individual motivation and achievement." (Core Assumption and statements)
However, what are the second and the third categories of this theory "The second wave of modernization theory is a part of the critical theory that was popular in the 1970s and 1980s. It does not support but criticize the influence of Western modernization. This is held to be a case of Western cultural and economic imperialism or dominance (Schiller, 1976), the third wave of modernization theory rising in the 1990s is the theory of late-, high- or post modernity. It tries to be more neutral, being not in favor or against Western modernization". (Core Assumption and statements)
Dependency Theory
This theory was "developed in the late 1950s under the guidance of the Director of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, Raul Prebisch. Prebisch and his colleagues were troubled by the fact that economic growth in the advanced industrialized countries did not necessarily lead to growth in the poorer countries". (Background)
Dependency Thoery can be simply defined as "an explanation of the economic development of a state in terms of the external influences--political, economic, and cultural--on national development policies." (Background)
Addtionally, "Dependency is also not a homogeneous, unified theory-serious analytical differences persist within the school. But in essence, dependency theory argues that the origins of persistent global poverty cannot be understood without reference to the entire international economic system. Underdevelopment is not a condition: it is an active process of impoverishment linked to development. That is, some parts of the world are underdeveloped because others are developed. They are not separate processes but two ...Show more
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Summary

Initially there is need to give the full meaning of both MODERNIZATION and DEPENDENCY as well. "Modernisation has been a dominant theory in the social sciences in the West since the 1950s. It draws on the biological sciences, which, since the last quarter of the 18th century in Western Europe , studied the growth and development of different species…
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