According to McKean (1977) tourism can be defined as "A profound, widely shared human desire to know 'others' with the reciprocal possibility that we may come to know ourselvesa quest or an odyssey to see, and perhaps to understand, the whole inhabited earth". Thus he considers tourism as a positive act of self-fulfillment actively participating as an agent of global change, and its marked imprint on landscapes in many parts of the world.
"The closer integration of the countries and people of the world are brought about by the enormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificial barriers of the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and people across borders."
Recent debates about globalization have only served to emphasize the theme of modernization. While some proponents of globalization have pointed to its ability to encourage economic modernization in the developing world, critics have characterized globalization as a homogenizing force (Hoogvelt, 2001; Scholte, 2000). effecting globalization to be extremely uneven and induce changes that benefit some political, economic and social groups while disadvantaging others. The unevenness of tourism developments, as part of broader processes of globalization, provides an ideal vantage point from which to analyze the ethical dimensions of globalization itself.
Anthropology can be defined as the study of humanity and besides the traditional ways to study tourism; anthropologists have shifted its grounds towards many other ways in which tourism can be studied. According to Buck's idea (1978), "tourism can be seen through opposing schools of thought". The critical deconstruction which the tourism faces is among one of the assumptions about the strength of culture, what constitutes 'authentic' and what tourists do on their vacation as weak and bound up in a very introverted, unconnected view of the world.
When it comes to different types and styles of tourism, classifications by purpose of travel have also been established with tourism types as "recreational tourism"; "cultural tourism"; "health tourism"; "sport tourism"; and "conference tourism". Each touristic type has its own scale of values and its hierarchy. However, two or more kinds are frequently combined in one trip. For instance, one might visit the museums and cathedrals in Europe (Historical) and then go to Northern Scandinavia to see the Midnight Sun (Environmental) and the Lapps (Ethnic), or one might combine the Historical, Cultural, and Ethnic by touring India. Certain types of tourism are closer in fact and function than others; for instance, Ethnic tourism is a combination of Culture and Nature tourism. Others are conceptually further removed, such as Cultural tourism, with its emphases on the great traditions, in contrast to Hunting and Gathering tourism represented by African hunting safaris. Within these categories of tourism, there are infinite variety of sub styles including class, and ethnic and national variations. The levels of preferred nature of the touristic goals vary almost as much by age group and personality as by national origin.
Another part of the anthropological response to tourism is focused on its cultural dimensions, where tourism considered as cultural exploitation provides competing styles