615). Problem Gambling is "persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family or vocational pursuits." (American Psychiatric Association) "It avoids the medical and pejorative implications of pathological'' (Walker & Dickerson, 1996) and the term Problem Gambler' is used to define someone "whose gambling is at an earlier stage and to a lesser degree than required by the diagnostic criteria" (Rosenthal, 1989). The third term Compulsive Gambling is more often used by "laypersons such as Gamblers Anonymous (GA) members". (Clinical Psychology Review 22 -2002) As this discussion is based on psychology, the main focus would remain on the "pathological gambling" in order to describe the gambling behaviors. Different forms of gambling are covered by the term PG including casino gambling, pari-mutuels, horse races, lotteries and gaming machines. The pathological gambling has several "negative impacts on the gamblers' physical and mental health and performance in vocational situations" (Productivity Commission, 1999). The pathological gamblers often face financial hardships, Interpersonal problems and psychosocial problems in their children. It is also associated with significant problems, including "suicidal ideation and attempts, marital conflicts, employment problems, alcohol and substance abuse, psychiatric co morbidity and decreased health function". (Benjamin J. Morasco, Jeremiah Weinstock 2007)
Rise of Gambling in United Kingdom
During last few decades, there has been a rise in gambling all over the world and in United Kingdom also people are getting addicted of it. Though there are not any specific reasons that convince people to start gambling but there are several factors that motivate people to do so. These factors include "demonstrating one's worth, getting approval and social acceptance from others, rebelling, relieving negative and painful events/emotions (e.g., anger, depression, frustration, and anxiety), hoping to win, participating due to social reasons, trying to beat the odds, to experience the excitement, passing time, and having fun (Blaszczynski, 1995; Cotte, 1997).
The factors involve in the developing of Pathological Gambling are covered under the heads of "familial factor - social learning, sociological factor, individual factors like personality, biochemistry, cognition and psychological states. ( (Namrata Raylu, Tian P.S. Oei 2002) The psychological factors that promote and inhibit gambling include emotional state, cognitions about winning, time of day, higher levels of neuroticism(Echeburua, Fernandez-Montalvo, & Baez, 2001; Hodgins& el-Guebaly, 2004) or recovery from a gambling problem e.g., quit due to financial concerns (Hodgins & el-Guebaly, 2000). Keeping in view all these factors the main reasons behind the rise of gambling in UK can be determined in the areas that are Technological Advancement, Flexible Gambling Laws, Media Advertisement and Cultural Effects.
With the advancement of new technologies, gambling is also