There is no doubt that a researcher attempting not only to define the nets of informational exchange in a social group (whether it is community of organizational environment) but also to provide a solid analysis of communication, needs to evaluate all of the above outlined variables. Knowledge and past experience, for example, determine both the quality of information and the ways it is shared. Beliefs and values (what organizational theorists call "organizational climate") not only affect the nature of communication but also shape people's attitudes to information. Generally speaking, these factors play crucial role in understanding community or human group, evaluating complex social-psychological process that take place within and, eventually, to bring changes to the environment:
The process of communication in communities and organizations itself as well as related variables that mediate this process has a long theory of research in social science and psychology (Abrams et al, 2005).
Obviously the first to discuss the nature of communicational processes in organizations was American sociologist Jacob Moreno. Moreno examined implicit social structure of community (orphan's asylum) and came to the conclusion that these groups determine the patterns of communication within the community. Moreno's sociometry methodology was based on asking people about their friends and exploring the structure of relationships in a community and the ways of informational flows (Schein, 1979).
Moreno's sociometry may be regarded as the first "map" of organizational processes, that also helped visualizing communicational flows. Moreno was also among the first to define that communication is significantly determined by such phenomena as friendship, relationships, affects, etc. The sociograms (diagrams of points and lines representing relations between community members) also served the first prototype of further "concept mapping" of communities (Schein, 1979).
Kurt Lewin as well believed that communication in communities is mediated by different social-psychological processes and phenomena. Perception, experience and history were pivotal in Lewin's model of social communication. Later Lewin's followers designed influential models of group cohesion, social pressure, cooperation, power and leadership and developed the methods for their graphical plotting (Schein, 1979).
Cartwright and Harary (1956) developed major idea of Moreno and represented groups and group processes as the collections of points connected by lines. This illustrative construction of "signed and directed"