From an early stage, the middle passage inspired moral outrage among those opposed to the slave trade, who often treated it as the most horrific part of the whole slave experience. Recently some scholars have argued that such moral outrage has led to a "melodramatic" rather than a "historical" account of the middle passage. I have tried to present an argument that we need a more balanced and less moralistic account of the middle passage from the perspective of the changing values and challenges thrown up by industrialization. (Breen T. H; 1997)
In the course of this paper, I have examined a plethora of facts, chosen the ones that are important, and determined their meaning. In the study of history, one has to make choices, develop explanations, and find meaning in whatever records of the past they can find. One also evaluates and challenges the choices, explanation and meanings developed by other historians. Making and debating interpretations, finding new sources, deriving new meaning from documents that others have used, all make the reading and writing of history challenging and exciting.
It was believed that the nation had passed through perhaps t...
questions of slavery, sectionalism, and national supremacy that had plagued the Americans for nearly eight decades had been resolved through a combination of the force of arms and the constitutional and legal change made possible by military victory. Irrespective of the fact that most Americans believed that these issues had been permanently resolved, this period posed new challenges to American values and assumptions.
Three intertwining themes define this period:
(i) industrialization - the rise of the industrial economy and of accompanying issues of law, governance, and public policy;
(ii) urbanization - the dramatic growth of the nation's cities as focal points for population growth and demographic change, and as centers of commerce, culture, education, news, and politics; and
(iii) immigration - the effects on American identity, politics, and culture of the great waves of immigration from eastern, central, and southern Europe and from Asia. The interaction of these themes added richness and complexity to late nineteenth-century American history. (Harrell et al, 2005)
The Economic integration of the European Union has been a long drawn process that has been witness to various changes and the emergence of trends. These include an explosion in the mobilization of sub national actors in Brussels as well as an attempt on the part of intergovernmentalists to devise a rational choice explanation for the materialization of a "third level" in EU politics. In this regard, regional representation has blossomed from two regional offices in 1985 to 165 in 2000. What does this imply and where is it leading the EU - towards convergence through the structuring of an appropriate platform for the sharing of ideas and resources; or towards divergence through the creation of