Practitioners today, suggest that the patient may be understood as always already embedded within a particular community, and further as a member of a system of state health care provision, with at best limited scope for a partial withdrawal from that service (Parker, 1999, p. 15). Healthcare settings identify appropriate decision making where the scope of decision is applicable, but not limited to treatment or modification in treatment, usually provided in stages (GMC, 2008, p. 18). Furthermore, decision making involves the role of healthcare professionals, assigned to a variety of investigative treatments like anesthesia, surgery etc.
Management and supervision processes portray indirect leadership activities which influence practitioners personally or by being delegated responsibilities. Even practitioners often feel helpless when they feel bounded by the relationship deployed between clinicians and managers or by such issues that reflect that the system managed by the primary care nurse is much smaller in actual size that of the nursing administrator. Such issues on one hand analyses the lack of developing a model of justice in health care, on the other hand illustrates the concern about appropriate decision making. ...
nt to react to notorious cases of malpractice by establishing the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), which sets standards of service through the NHS Frameworks. But still there is a room for betterment of the clinical supervision that focuses on the accountability to patients. It is through effective clinical governance that organisations are confident on their managerial framework to focus on clinical case-works and professional development by making individuals accountable for setting and monitoring performance standards (Fleming & Steen, 2003, p. 15).
Justification of Ethical Principles
Ethical decision making requires four main principles that national health organisations and practices including NHS have adopted, namely principle of beneficence, autonomy, non-maleficence and principle of justice. The principle of autonomy is applicable to the extent where the right to be told one's true medical condition appears to be an area over which an individual has a right to be self-governing. This knowledge might affect how the individual who is suffering from a chronic disease like cancer likes to conduct the last few months of his life. For example, there might be certain issues in his personal life which he chooses to discuss to those who have been close to him. There could also be an issue over how he might chooses to spend the last few months at home, if this is possible, rather than in hospital.
On the other hand, it might be argued that application of the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence favor, not telling this individual the true condition of his diagnosis. This concept has taken place due to the fact that many managers assume that harm would be indirectly done to the individual if he knows, since then he will be thwarted by