Whilst many people look on the jobs created by the information economy as "high tech", in actuality and in many respects it is merely new levels of de-skilling and pays differentials. Some parts of the new information economy, such as telesales or call centers, and some information processing jobs such as web content production, have been likened to the sweatshops of traditional manufacturing industries. These jobs even have a high job insecurity ratio.
As Belt, Richardson and Webster (2000) put it “Call center operations do not constitute an ‘industry’ in the commonly accepted sense, but it is considered sensible to refer to call centers as an industry.” So for all required purposes call centers are an excellent example of how employment relationships function within the service economy. Call center agents are supposed to be friendly cheerful and helpful as we as customers tend to expect this kind of behavior from interactive service workers. This was perceived as “emotional labor” by Hochschild (1983) because a certain degree of emotional investment was required to produce the desired effect. It seems to be a new way to exploit the workers. Van Maanen and Kunda (1989) have said that “organizational culture management, only seem to want to mask managerial attempts to control not only what employees say and do but feel as well.” Emotional management seems to have been organized even more efficiently and pushed to the next level. Emotional labor increases stress and decreases job satisfaction immensely.