The tactics and strategies used by this group shall also be reviewed and discussed based on the context of how they have changed over the years since their first creation. The group’s modus operandi or mode of operations shall be evaluated and discussed. The motivations of the group and why such motivations are important shall also be considered. A conclusion shall end this paper, and shall consider why this group has emerged and developed as it has, and whether or not it will remain in power as a terrorist group.
1. Historical background
• Soviet presence in Afghanistan
From 1979-1989, conflicts were very much rampant in Afghanistan. When the country was invaded by the Soviet Union, Islam extremists in the country rallied to protect their cause. These extremists came from the ranks of young Muslims around the world who were supportive the holy war or jihad against the Soviet Union. One of these young jihadists was 23 year old “Usama” bin Laden from Saudi Arabia (Public Affairs Television, 2010). Bin Laden was the son of a wealthy construction magnate; and took to heart the teachings of Abdullah Azzam, a Palestinian who had ties with Sayyid Qutb. Bin Laden hardly participated in the actual fighting in Afghanistan, and he was known more for generously funding the Afghan jihad against the Soviet Union (Public Affairs Television, 2010). ...
However, bin Laden and Azzam differed in terms of principles and goals for the group as Azzam wanted to keep the group within the borders of Afghanistan, while bin Laden wanted to expand the goals of the organization. Azzam was killed in 1989 and this left bin Laden to be the full lone leader of the group (Public Affaird Television, 2010). Bin Laden was later driven out of Afghanistan and sought exile in Saudi Arabia; he later moved to Sudan, taking with him the main operations of his group. From Sudan, he started to coordinate his international operations and groups in the Middle East, in Africa, and in some parts of Southeast Asia (Public Affairs Television, 2010). He also declared a fatwa against the US after troops were deployed to Somalia (Hoffman, p. 6). He also started to lay the groundwork for his eventual attack on the US. The group were said to have assisted in the attack on two Black Hawk helicopters in 1993 and the group also took credit for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. In 1995, they also bombed a Saudi-US joint facility which was a training facility for the Saudi National Guard in Saudi Arabia (Public Affairs Television, 2010). Peak 1996-2001 As the group was facing international pressure, Sudan forced bin Laden back into Afghanistan. At this point he was experiencing difficulties in rebuilding his international network. When the Taliban group rose in power in Afghanistan, Al-Qaeda started to flourish and to experience a strong international network. In 1998, bin Laden issued another fatwa against the US, including its citizens (Morgan, p. 34). The group also merged with the Egypt-based Islamist Jihad which was headed