A fundamental concern of Marx is the concept of different classes in society, arranged hierarchically in a pyramid form with a small number of people controlling things at the top, and a very large base number of workers who create the goods which society needs. This arrangement, in Marx’s view, contains an inbuilt source of conflict, since the elite levels seek to exploit the worker levels for their own profit. These tendencies can be resolved by a raising of the consciousness of the workers, and revolutionary activity which overturns the supremacy of capitalist elites and in theory returns more control to the workers. The elites who own the means of production are known as the bourgeoisie, and the workers who supply the labour in the production process are known as the proletariat. The main concern, therefore, in Marx’s view of society is the locus of power and how it is exercised. Marx is critical of the forces that lead capitalist business owners to drive down the wages of workers in order to make more and more profit for themselves. Work is viewed as an ennobling process which brings meaning to the life of a person, but only if there is a fair distribution of the wealth that comes from that labor. Marx was concerned about the future exploitation of workers under Capitalism. Its never-ending accumulation of money for its own sake rather than for general good sets up a cycle of opposition. The closer a worker is to the goods he produces, being able to use them himself and appreciate their value, the more authentic his experience of work is going to be. One consequence of this view of the social world is that it emphasizes the importance of human actions, and does not leave much room for philosophy and religion, which explain things by means of concepts outside human control such as scientific principles, or divine intervention. Humans construct their social reality out of historically inherited traditions, and their reactions to what happens in their lives in relation to others around them. As society after the industrial revolution grew ever more complex, so did social organization become more necessary, and this resulted in the emergence of large bureaucracies to guide and administer social functions. Solidarity between workers becomes necessary in order to hold the greed of the bourgeoisie in check, and in Marx’s view this mutual support and respect between workers is one of the main components of a successful society and a future risk is the erosion of this solidarity and an endless cycle of oppression and revolution. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) was a French scholar interested in how society works, and his fundamental concern was the structures and institutions that different societies and groups within society construct in order to manage their day to day lives. Unlike Marx, Durkheim sees religion as an important aspect of the social world, and defines this broadly to include all kinds of beliefs that knit people together. For Durkheim concepts like the contrast between sacred and profane objects or actions are ways of giving meaning to human social actions. In other words religion should be seen as a product of social interaction between people in a group. Durkheim’s attempt to describe the underlying norms and values of society by means of observation of the way that people act formed the beginning of what we now recognize as the discipline of sociology. Looking at late nineteenth century
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Sociology How do Marx, Durkheim, Weber, and Parsons view the social world? The view of the social world which Karl Marx (1818-1883) holds is a materialist one, which means that the focus is on economic means of production and the roles that people play in creating wealth and transferring it from person to person…
Though profoundly influential, his views can be criticized as having adopted a too-narrow view of the Protestant ethic and of the impact of technology on the capitalistic power structure. Max Weber 3 Title Max Weber’s profound contributions to the disciplines of sociology, politics and economics place him squarely in the vanguard of the development of social sciences.
This comes in many varieties and this explains why at the end of the day people in the society can never be the same but similar in actions and character. These actions and rules are used by the individuals to make sense out of the questions they have about the world.
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Weber is regarded as the father of modern social sciences along with Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Weber was an advocate of methodological anti-positivism and viewed sociology as a non-empiricist discipline that must be studied through interpretive means and subjective explanations that people attach to their actions.
Contrasting to Marx or Weber, he really defined his work in terms of a duty to develop sociology as an established and respected discipline in the university world, and he celebrated closely with that practiced role. It is the key to his character and to his effort.
He was rushed to a hospital and would survive for the next few days before finally succumbing to his injuries. At first, his regrettable actions appeared to be the simply the misguided act of a frustrated fruit seller. However, once the news of his actions spread in the town of Sidi Bouzid, there were riots that were seen to be a sympathetic act from fellow frustrated and jobless Tunisians.
Hence, existentialism allows a person to use its assumptions to look for meaningful things in life. With these assumptions of existentialism, the present paper would like to stress how such worldview can be analyzed and criticized and how it is useful
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Although Karl Marx and Max Weber agree class conflict exists in society, they both have different views and approaches on how class and class conflict develop and its effects on shaping and evolving the society as a whole. Marx described class is a particular position with the relation of production with assigned specific role to people in the society.
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