Female circumcision and sadomasochism are two of these issues and there is debate whether they should be governed by criminal laws or not. Some argue that these practices should not be allowed by law because they violate human rights. Others argue that these practices should remain legal because law should entertain cultural and religious differences. In this paper we will shed light on these practices and a comprehensive argument will be developed against practicing of female circumcision and sadomasochism. Explanation of Female Circumcision and Sadomasochism Female circumcision is defined by World Health Organization as ‘procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genital for non medical reasons’ (World Health Organization, 2010). It is a usual practice in many religious and cultural communities all over the world. Young girls are forced to mutilate their genitals in order to protect their virginity (Lane &Rubinstein, 1996). Females are required to undergo the practice in order to ensure their purity. In some societies it is also a religious requirement. Female circumcision is not accepted by many around the world due to the health risks it pose for girls. The threat of infection is common in many victims of female circumcision. Most countries use archaic methods for circumcision and they increase health risks. Sadomasochism is known as a combination of sadism and masochism. It is known as receiving of sexual pleasure by submitting to emotional or physical abuse. There are people who derive sexual pleasure when they are subjected physical abuse. These people are not under any pressure. They willfully submit to emotional and physical abuse in order to gain sexual gratification. There are psychological reasons behind Sadomasochism. Some people argue that this should not be criminalized due to the fact that no one’s right is violated. It is also said that what people do in their private life is their own choice and state should not intervene. Others are in favor of criminalizing it because of the threat it poses to the victim. Possible Explanations of Female Circumcision and Sadomasochism Female circumcision is done for religious and cultural reasons. It is customary in African and Middle Eastern societies to mutilate genitals of girls. It is usual for women not to get sexually involved before getting married. Female circumcision gives the society assurance that a particular girl is clean and pure. Virginity is celebrated in many societies and women are usually under burden of ‘honor’. This is why this practice is still being followed in many countries and there are people who still argue in favor of female circumcision even after evidence that the practice can cause serious danger to lives of the women (Brady, 2009). The story of Jamelia was published in the Guardian (2010). She was a 12 year old girl whose genitals were cut due to religious reasons and she was made to believe that it was religiously important. The girl lived in Britain where it is crime to carry out a female circumcision but unfortunately the laws are not very strict (Guardian, 2010). Under Islamic faith women are required to circumcise therefore most number of women affected by this practice belong to Islam. Female circumcision is also seen as a way to control the sexuality of a female
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Female Circumcision and Sadomasochism Customer Inserts His/Her Name Customer Inserts Grade Course Customer Inserts (12, September, 2011) Introduction There are certain issues in human society that are not easy to tag as right or wrong. The debate whether cultural or religious or individual differences should be respected when it comes to human rights or not…
Female genital mutilation continues eliciting ethical, legal and professional concerns in medical practice mainly because of its widespread application for non-therapeutic use cultural use in various parts of the world. This paper examines how ethical, legal and professional issues underpin female circumcision in clinical practice.
People involve on these practices considered it legal but for wider public, they considered it illegal due to health and emotional implications that come along with it. Female genitalia mutilation, also known as female genitalia cutting refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of external genital organs for non medical reasons.
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It is usually to be done within 48 hours of the baby’s birth or at the most within 10 days of birth. Until the 1970s, circumcision was considered to be a religious custom and parents’ permission was not mandatory for circumcising male infants. David Gollaher argues that circumcision doesn’t make a boy a Jewish or a Muslim.
Although opponents of circumcision question the mutilation or removal of foreskin resulting to painful and decrease sexual response, existing scientific evidence demonstrates potential medical benefits of neonatal male circumcision because it prevents cases of urinary tract infection (UTI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or sexually transmitted disease (STD) and penile cancer for infants and adults.
So attempts to save the women from the practice may in fact reflect a longer-lived prejudice against all things 'African'.
Njambi suggests that the current campaign against "female genital mutilation" (or FGM) in fact suggests that the human body can be separated from its cultural context, and that those who are so against the practice are perpetuating a "culture/nature dualism" that has been "roundly questioned by feminists in science studies".
It is more of a cultural practice than religious. The cultural aspect for and against FC must be taken into consideration when consulting with Nawal. Then within this framework, medical issues should be raised with her to help Nawal make a decision for her
It was determined that in 1980s 60% of newborn boys in the United States went through circumcision and today this rate is a bit lower – 56%. Many boys in the United States and Canada still undergo circumcision