s and features, and socio-economic and political issues that have either positive or negative impacts to the spread and placement of a population (Barbier, 2011, p. 372). Resources are also a contributing factor to the spread and settlement of a population; this is because the availability of the resources means the availability of job opportunities for both the local populations and other migrant workers. Even though contraceptive use and family planning are crucial and useful to reduce fertility, they are only palliative solution because of the built-in population momentum. To grapple with the myriad youthful population growth at hand, socioeconomic factors such as poverty alleviation (people exploit the resources because they are poor and poverty encourage large family as a hedge against mortality, disease such as AIDS, to provide more workers and to ensure social security) and enhance the status of women should be considered. The environment is an essential tool here because it provides resources that influence demographic issues.
Africa as a whole is experiencing a bust of sustainable growth and development- in both the rural and urban settings. Although still largely rural, the experience of major changes in terms of population composition and their distribution has had both positive and negative implications on the environment and on the continents’ development (Hassan, 2005, p. 222). Challenging, is the critical task of ensuring better and more equitable sustenance and provision of returns to the people, while at the same time taking care of the environment through proper exploitation and little or no degradation due to either farming or resource exploitation. The changing demography, particularly, the shift towards a younger age structure of the population, a high rate of urbanization and a steadily rising population size, in relation to economic growth are critical drivers of their economies and contribute to the environmental change that the