Structural functionalism declares society as an organic whole, where a strong and integrated structure is dependent on the adequate functioning of all the social institutions and organizations. Similarly, conflict theory opines struggle between the classes as the pivotal point behind all the developments and transformations taking place in group life. On the contrary, symbolic interactionism views applying of signs, gestures, expressions and body language as most important one during people’s communication with one another. Hence, words, symbols, and gestures not only convey the message of one individual to others but also determine and decide the reaction of others on the foundations of words, expressions and body language delivered during the interaction process.
Inspired by renowned psychologist theorist George Herbert Mead, Herbert Blumer articulated symbolic interaction theory in 1937. Mead had first coined the doctrine of psychological behaviorism. “For Mead, the unit of study is the “act”, which comprises both overt and covert aspects of human action. Within the act, all the separated categories of the traditional, orthodox psychologies find a place. Attention, perception, imagination, reasoning, emotion and so forth, are seen as part of the act.”1 (Meltzer, 1978: quoted in Ritzer, 2007: 298) Symbolic interactionism states that all sets of social norms, cultural values, religious rituals, traditions, customs and conventions etc are actually the determined patterns of behavior, which guide the humans to act and react according to the situation.