118). A study by Newton-Howes, Tyrer, and Weaver (1033) provides evidence that personality disorders may cause more social dysfunction than other psychological pathologies. Personality disorders have a destructive effect on marriages (South, Turkheimer, and Oltmanns 769), and may even force a person out of the workforce (Korkeila et al. 18). These conditions are also associated with higher suicidal intent, according to a study by Haw and Hawton (139). The physical threat is not solely from the self, as personality traits (of which disorders are extreme forms) have been found to be strong predictors of cardiovascular disease outcomes (Reich and Schatzberg 1017). The extreme loneliness that is associated with some personality orders (Martens n. p.) may lead to further physical and social problems due to personal neglect and isolation.
We have discussed only a few examples of individual effects that can arise from personality disorders. The consequences of such an affliction are many and can be quite severe. Accordingly, the definitions, diagnoses, and treatments associated with personality disorders are often refined as needed (Russ et al. 1473). These improvements would not be possible without continuing research into the issue.
Haw, Camilla, and Keith Hawton. “Life Problems and Deliberate Self-Harm: Associations With Gender, Age, Suicidal Intent and Psychiatric and Personality Disorder.” Journal of Affective Disorders 102.1-2 (2008): 139-48. Print.
Korkeila, J. et al. “Early Retirement From Work Among Employee With a Diagnosis of Personality Disorder Compared to Anxiety and Depressive Disorders.” European Psychiatry 26.1 (2011): 18-22. Print.
Walter, Kristen H., Teri A. Bolte, Gina P. Owens, and Kathleen M. Chard. “The Impact of Personality Disorders on Treatment Outcome for Veterans in a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Residential Treatment Program.” Cognitive Therapy and