In times of deaths, this program had provided a lump – sum benefit (Achenbuam, 1986). This Social Security Act was established to regulate the anticipated dangers of old age, joblessness, poverty, as well as the burdens of widows and fatherless kids in the contemporary American world (Achenbuam, 1986).
According to Social Security Administration (SSA) (2000) Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor who was the Chairwoman of Committee on Economic Security proposed and supported the establishment of the program. Other committee members who supported Social Security were the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr.; Secretary of Agriculture, Henry A. Wallace; Attorney General Homer S. Cummings; and Federal Emergency Relief Harry L. Hopkins (SSA, 2000). On the one hand, a senator from Oklahoma disagreed and questioned the said program (Altman, 2009).
According to Achenbaum (1986), those in favor of the Social Security contended the advantages of the program. First, the needs of the old age in their retirement were addressed through benefits and assistance. It was seen as an encouragement for the retirement of the old – aged workers. This had created new job opportunities for the younger individuals. Thus, the unemployment rate would be lower.
On the one hand, those who were in opposition to the program, particularly the Senator from Oklahoma argued that it was a form of socialism (Altman, 2009). Also, it was the case that it had excluded the minority groups including women. The minorities and women were not receiving unemployment insurance as well as the pensions given to the old – aged citizens (Mink, 1995). Social Security Act of 1935 was regarded to be discriminatory.
According to Social Security Administration (2004), as initiated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Committee on Economic Security (CES) was created in 1934. The task of this committee is to study the