An example is if jobs are given specifically to new migrants, rather than being offered to the long term resident population. Another example might be having all women short lists. The term is especially used when such discrimination results from policies which have been set up to correct possible discrimination against minority or otherwise disadvantaged group members. Sometimes it is referred to as affirmative action, which sounds good, but has also been described as ‘a necessary, but imperfect, remedy for an intractable social disease.’
The various groups concerned may be defined by size, ethnic group, race, religious affiliation, or gender, as well as other possible factors. Such discrimination may be deliberately aiming to redress various inequalities, in cases where members of minority groups have been denied access to privileges which are available to members of the majority group.
According to Barron’s Law Dictionary (2003) the term has been used to describe the practice of reserving places for minorities in schools and in corporate promotions, and the hiring of minority group members, such as Afro-Americans who have less job seniority than possible white candidates.
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin, and bars employment practices that result in disparate treatment or disparate impact. A federal judge threw out the case, as she claimed that passing the test did not entitle anyone to a job, but merely made an opportunity for promotion. 27 Afro-Americans had taken the test, but none were open for promotion as a result, all having failed. The City Charter in New Haven requires the Board of Fire Commissioners to use civil service examinations which are based on a "Rule of Three", i.e. only the three highest scoring candidates will receive promotion. There were no black candidates among the highest scorers. The judge claimed that throwing out the results was not a race discriminatory act, as all results were discarded. An appeals panel later stated that the officials were aiming to fulfill their legal obligations under anti-discrimination laws, and that the test