The paper is an experimental study which examines competition in two societies, one of which is predominately matriarchal and the other is patriarchal. The authors found that in the patriarchal society, males engaged in competition significantly more than females. However, the reverse was true for the matriarchal society.
The study was conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture and is an Economic Research Report. Because of this it is likely that the results are valid. Additionally, the survey is undertaken every year, indicating that it is likely to be highly accurate.
The study is peer-reviewed and published in a reputable journal. The study is large scale and uses valid scientific assumptions. However, more studies are needed to see how strong this effect is in western societies.
The two factors are strongly related, but are not identical, as the authors of this study found that most situations of food insecurity were in low-income familes, some did occur in high-income families.
Agrees with conclusions of Croson & Gneezy (2009), that women are less competitive than males in patricachal societies. Although the study by Cronson and Gneezy did not consider society type most or all of the studies reviewed were of a westernized patrical socierty.
The authors summarize a range of studies to examine whether males and females differ in terms of risk taking tendencies, social preferences and competitive decisions. Studies were taken from a wide range of sources.
The author considers many aspects where people tend to perceive the world as being bad where in fact much has been improving. Of interest is the chapter on financial status throughout the world. This includes a section in gender differences and earning trends in the United States.
The conclusions of this study directly contrast those of Gneezy et al. (2009). Both studies focused on whether male and female behavior different. Gneezy et al. suggested that yes, behavior does differ,