Marxism holds that social relationships derive from production of primary means of people’s existence such as food, clothing, and shelter. Apart from the production, distribution, and exchange of means of social existence, a multi- play of factors is present. These factors eventually herald antagonism within society (Glasser and Walker 2007, p.18). Marx dispelled the notion that the society was harmonious. In fact, he held that conflict within the society is either apparent or obscured. Conflict within the social system arises from three issues, namely: forces of production, relations within the production, and the ways of production.
Social classes emerge from unequal, exploitative relationships within the society. Bourgeoisie (ruling class) own the means of production while the Proletariat, who are poor and work for the Ruling class. Marx argued that the inequalities and conflict of interest between the social classes brings about social change. Marx also argued that the working class were in a false consciousness assuming that the economic system is built on freedom, fairness, and equality. Meanwhile, the Bourgeoisie utilize the power derived from ownership of means of production to control how the working class interprets their situation. Marx argued that overtime; the working class will eventually rise against the ruling class leading to the creation of a socialist society (Jacoby 2002, p.13).
Orthodox Marxism emerged after death of Marx and seeks to abridge, codify, and organize Marxist thought. Orthodox Marxism lays emphasis on concepts such as the method of creation of goods, forces within production, separation of labour, ideology, and class struggles. Orthodox Marxism was the overriding philosophy during second international, up to First World War and thereafter. Its quest is to resolve the apparent ambiguities and inconsistencies within classical Marxism. Orthodox Marxism builds on critiques of