These forces worked with scientific justifications to oppress specific minorities.
In Farley’s, “Racial Identities 2000”, the author talks about the progress in the racial system of classification. In the 2000 census, people were allowed to identify themselves as belonging to more than one race. This gives a better perspective of the multi-racial identities that people identify with.
Bertrand and Mullainthan conducted an experiment in “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal?” They found that there was discrimination in the labor market, with white names receiving more job opportunities than their black counterparts.
Steele’s “Stereotype Threat”, refers to the anxiety someone feels when they have the potential to confirm a negative racial stereotype. An example the authors use is the failure of black students in intelligence tests due to conceptions of