All aspects in society are independent but contribute to society to function as a whole. Rosenfeld and Messner regard monetary success as a main component of the dream of America due to the fact that the nation’s dream cannot be a fixation. They recognize that all Americans are proud of their personal materials and corresponding comforts and prestige that come as a result of individual success. The evaluations and beliefs about American Dream are seen in America’s culture since they are components of the culture. Looking at American’s dream, a lot of emphasis is laid on monetary success as weak emphasis is put on the strength of legitimate means used in pursuing success. Organic solidarity and social cohesion through interdependence of people in society who accept varied beliefs and values in society is indicated since Americans work independently but share the opportunities that come as a result of unity such as lack of crimes and achieving the dream. Occur in complex and industrialized societies. Social change viewed as undesirable since varied parts of society will automatically compensate for problems arising. However, Messner and Rosenfeld show that pressures used in securing monetary rewards are structurally and culturally achieved (115). Also, it becomes clear that weak controls from social institutions promote instrumental crimes. Social institutions are weak since they are non economic. Rosenfeld and Messner show that economic conditions on crimes which are related to profits depend on non economic institution’s strength (3). People not encouraged participating in changing social environment which could have helped them is clearly depicted. Symbolic interactionists Rosenfeld and Messner are used as symbolic interactionists since their spoken words act as predominant symbols. As one reads the written material of the two, he or she attaches meaning to words written then act according to interpretation of the message given. According to their writings the words written by them have certain meaning which might be different to readers due to varied interpretation. Moreover, Messner and Rosenfeld make us understand the American dream differently hence acting as symbolic integrationists (56). The nation of American has its meaning to the word American Dream but individuals have their own meanings. This shows that macro level of social interpretation is neglected since big picture; other peoples’ views are neglected and yet individual interactions vary. Conflict perspective Messner and Rosenfeld are used to indicate the conflict perspective since negative perspective of society is seen in through their work (7). The recognition that high crimes exist in America is seen through them. Rosenfeld and Messner advocate for social change by indicating that, in United States that monetary value should not be taken as the only value since they recognize that other values are competing for their validation and attention in United States (48). This has led to Anomic pressures in United States leading to favor of success in monetary value by the America’
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Name: Institution: Course: Date: Introduction CLASSICAL THEORIES Sociologists use three theoretical perspectives in explaining how people are influenced by society or how society is influenced by people. Human behavior, social forces and society at large are conceptualized by the perspectives; functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic Interactionism as seen in the acts of Rosenfeld and Messner below: Structural functionalist Messner and Rosenfeld depict society as a structure containing interrelated parts hence acting as structural functionalists (2)…
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