Civil rights movements and social movements, and Marxism are familiar drivers of social change in the world. Moreover it is evident that just like any change in the globe, social change faces a lot of resistance and yields diverse consequences (Dunn and Babones 1-2). Indeed, people with underlying interests oppose any attempt to social change. Additionally, these consequences may be long term or immediate. As such, many sociologists have taken time to concentrate on various studies that seek to draw an understanding the nature, patterns, causes, and effects of global social change. Consequently, they have come up with conflicting, functionalist, and evolutionary theories to explain global social change.
The Evolutionary theory that relies on the findings of Charles Darwins on biological evolution to social change, observes that any society moves in a specific direction of advancement. Hence, the presumption that cultural attitude of modern societies is more advanced. Comte, Durkheim, and Spencer contributed to this theory favoring unilinear evolution that denotes a universal route of evolution to attain social change. On the other hand, Gerhard Lenski, Jr., favors multilinear evolution that denotes the absence of a common route to social change. Hence, the notion that society evolves in a unique manner (Sharma 19-21). The Functionalist theory puts more emphasis on the factors that maintain a society rather than what changes its social set up. This theory assumes the society to be at a stable state and relies on the equilibrium theory to denote that when changes occur in one aspect of the society, counter changes are necessary in other aspects of the same society. It establishes the fact that in absence of the counter changes, the stability of the society tumbles and alteration of social order is irresistible. Nevertheless, the assumptions and application of this theory faces a lot of criticism. Finally, we have the Conflict theory that observes that where the