From this research it is clear that the early writings of Thorndike first captured the essence of emotional intelligence, by describing people who had “the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls…to act wisely in human relations”, as having a different type of intelligence. Leeper posited that “emotional thought” contributed to intelligence in general and was a part of “logical thought”. Gardner broadened the understanding of intelligence through his theory of “multiple intelligences” by establishing specific criteria for distinguishing behavior that would constitute intelligence. Gardner describes several forms of intelligence, two of which help establish the groundwork for evaluating emotional intelligence: 1) interpersonal – understanding of people and relationships; and 2) intrapersonal –understanding of oneself and one’s emotions. Salovey and Mayer identified emotional intelligence for the first time as the “ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action”. The most commonly used classification of models in the emotional intelligence literature is the dichotomy between trait (mixed) and ability frameworks of emotional intelligence. Trait models are based on self-report and/or peer-report assessments, ability models 11 are based on more objective (performance-based) forms of assessment.
(VanRooy, Viswesvaran, & Pluta, 2005; Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2004). According to Salovey and Mayer (1990) ability emotional intelligence conceptualizes emotional intelligence as a form of intelligence, and is comprised of constructs thought to be generic to the ability domain (ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions). In contrast, trait emotional intelligence refers to a conglomeration of emotion-related self perceptions and dispositions assessed through self-report measures (MacCann, Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2003; Neubauer & Freudenthaler, 2005). Research has highlighted the utility of emotional intelligence. The limited research on the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction suggests that trait-based (self-report) emotional intelligence measures tend to yield more positive results than those obtained when utilizing ability-based emotional intelligence measures such as the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test – MSCEIT (Abraham, 2000; Carmeli, 2003; Sy et al., 2006; Wong & Law, 2002). Atwater and Yammarino, 1992; Sosik and Megerian, 1999; and Weisinger, 1999 whose literature suggests that promoting the development of emotional intelligence competencies through the use of assessment instruments can help improve self-awareness because it enables participants to recognize their own emotions and the emotions of others. Therefore, the use of an emotional intelligence instrument to assess competencies holds the possibility for improving the performance of law enforcement officers (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, Boyatzis, & Mckee, 2002; Stein & Book, 2001). In a study by Afolabi, Awosola, and Omole (2010), the authors evaluated the impact of emotional intelligence on job performance and satisfaction among Nigerian police officers. The relationship between emotional intelligence and gender was explored on 119 police officers randomly chosen from the Esan Area Command in Nigeria (Afolabi, Awosola, & Omole, 2010). The study revealed that with higher emotional intelligence, police officers were satisfied with their work and consequently performed better, as compared to police officers with low emotional intelligence (Afolabi et al., 2010). Consequently, the authors rightly recommended that measures be made to improve the emotional intelligence of police officers in order to eventually improve the quality of their work. In a similar study, Aremu, Pakes and Johnston (2011) also evaluated the