Karl Marx is a modernist because he believed that scientific methods, through historical materialism, can unearth the truth and help people challenge false belief systems. Marx argued that people should challenge existing capitalist structures of power, in order to attain social transformation, where an equitable distribution of power and wealth exists. Antonio Gramsci proposed that coercion can exist through “cultural hegemony,” where people agree that corporate interests serve their personal interests too (Brock, 2012, p.17). He argued that maintaining hegemony is a complex process, but people can fight it through counter-hegemonic actions.
Michael Foucault shifted sociological questions to “how” through his genealogical method. He examined the intricacy and contingency of historical events and everyday activities. He argued that power is historically produced and represented the ethical and political values of their times. Furthermore, Foucault asserted that power and knowledge have a circular relationship, where exercising power creates knowledge and this knowledge reinforces power. Liberalism believes that full citizenship is critical to political participation and economic progress. Neoliberalism contends that power is accessible to those who can attain it. It promotes the liberalization of markets through its free market ideology, where states support the privatization of public goods and services. This theory is highly individualistic and focuses on self-motivation and self