and punishment has been viewed as a responding means towards declining crime rates, the initiative has left behind many social, economic and cultural expenses thus failing in its role of reducing crime (Chiricos & Delone, 1999).Over the years, several factors including political, social and economic factors have had remaking facet on the social life without interest being in the justice and crime patterns. In addition, most of the theories related to criminology have been centered on individual crime etiology causation or on failures in institutions especially the local-level ones with the best example being the prisons.
The failures addressed in these theories include the little attention given to the sociological forces (Garland, 2000). A number of authors have come up with several methodological and theoretical approaches with an aim of capturing the structural changes effects on justice and crime patterns. These authors and thinkers suggest theories that are structural accumulative providing models that are useful in the incorporation of existing macro-social changes in criminology. To achieve, the writers and thinkers have come up with different arguments which the paper is going to look at such as labor regime changes and balance shifts of control strategies effects in shaping the crime patterns and problems (Philips, 2002).
Russell’s theory was aimed at explaining the offending patterns of black people in the US who have over the years been convicted, disproportionally arrested and incarcerated. In her argument, she believed that the criminology has to move beyond the commonly witnesses’ abundant description and analysis of the existing relationship between official offending and race so as to come up with critical theoretical approach that will go outside the framework of examining of the current criminological theories. According to Russell, a black criminology that is subfield would include theoretical perspectives formed at both the macro and micro