The occurrence of the earthquake was triggered by the position of the country in a micro plate enclosed to the north and south by fracture zones (Oriente and Septentrional) and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (Brattberg & Sundelius, 2011). The locking of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault for over 200 years caused buildup of stresses resulting to stored energy in the form of elastic strain in the outer layer of the earth. Excessive stress in the fault region caused a rupture leading to discharge of energy in seismic forms (Brattberg & Sundelius, 2011).
The Haitian earthquake left thousands of people homeless due to destruction of buildings. It had a devastating impact on the public health of citizens owing to destruction of health facilities, food and other resources (Pistone & Hoeffner, 2011). The earthquake increased the vulnerability of people to diseases due to poor sanitation resulting from the earthquake. The direct plus indirect impacts of the earthquake were evident as communication systems, water supplies, transportation systems and healthcare facilities were destroyed. Inaccessibility of transport systems plus communication problems made food plus medical supplies difficult hence increasing diseases (Cavallo, Powell & Becerra, 2010). The earthquake left several people with permanent disabilities where some became blind and others physically unfit. Diseases such as Malaria became common to the population due to in adequate preventive measures (Pistone & Hoeffner, 2011).
Haitian earthquake led to the deaths of thousands of people. Estimates indicate that over 250,000 people died with the inclusion of those missing. The causes of morbidity in Haiti attributes to diseases such as malaria, diarrhea and diseases related to malnutrition (Cavallo et al., 2010). The public is vulnerable to other problems related to mental health, for example, Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). The survivors of the Haitian earthquake suffered various problems;